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385. What is escape Velocity ?

Escape velocity is the speed that an object needs to be traveling to break free of a planet or moon's gravity well and leave it without further propulsion. On the surface of the Earth, the escape velocity is about 11.2 km/s, which is approximately 33 times the speed of sound (Mach 33) and several times the muzzle velocity of a rifle bullet (up to 1.7 km/s).
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http://telegra.ph/386-What-is-Epicenter-of-Earthquakes-06-16
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387. What is mAh the unit of phone battery?

An ampere hour or amp hour is a unit of electric charge equal to the charge transferred by a current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs. The commonly seen milliampere hour (mAh or mA·h) is one-thousandth of an ampere hour (3.6 coulombs).
It is used as the amount of charge that can be storede inside a battery.
An ampere is a unit of measure of the rate of electron flow or current in an electrical conductor. One ampere of current represents one coulomb of electrical charge (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) moving past a specific point in one second. 
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388. How does potash alum arrest bleeding?

Bleeding can be stopped by coagulation of the blood (formation of a clot). Potash alum has highly charged Al3+ and (SO4)2- ions which act as neutralizing ions for the protein colloid in blood. This causes aggregation or clotting and this in turn stops the bleeding.
Chemical Formula of Potash Alum :
K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O
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389. What is photosphere?

Photosphere is the outer shell of star from which light is radiated. It is the innermost layer of the solar atmosphere to which our eyes can penetrate through the superficial transparent layers. Our view is obstructed beyond this layer by the rapidly increasing opacity of the denser layers of the gas as we go inward through it. Temperature of photosphere for Sun is about 5,800 K and values of pressure & density are low.
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390. What are essential fatty acids?

Human body can synthesize most of the fats it require. However, two essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic, cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained from food. These basic fats, found in plant foods, are used to build other specialized fats called omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
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391. What was the first cloned animal ?

Dolly (sheep) Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
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392. How do night goggles work and what type of energy do they use?

Truth is, not all types of light is visible. The light that we can see is only part of the electromagnetic spectrum .There are other types of light, such as infrared and ultraviolet light, which cannot be seen by the naked eye .
In the darkest places, there will always be a little light, even if it only is infrared light. What the googles do is they "enhance the image". This means that the goggles "amplifies the light" if you will.
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392. How do night goggles work and what type of energy do they use?

Truth is, not all types of light is visible. The light that we can see is only part of the electromagnetic spectrum .There are other types of light, such as infrared and ultraviolet light, which cannot be seen by the naked eye .
In the darkest places, there will always be a little light, even if it only is infrared light. What the googles do is they "enhance the image". This means that the goggles "amplifies the light" if you will.
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393. What is the Ketogenic Diet?

A keto diet is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. It's referred to as many different names – ketogenic diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc. When you eat something high in carbs, your body will produce glucose and insulin.
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394. What are Micronutrients ?

Micronutrients are nutrients required throughout life in small quantities for a wide range of physiological functions enabling the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development. These include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, as opposed to macrominerals, which are required in larger quantities. The microminerals or trace elements include iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc and molybdenum. Vitamins are also micronutrients and perform diverse biochemical functions.
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395. What is TX- 2 initiative?

Double the number of Tigers by 2022.
Tigers are the largest species of cat and one of the most iconic animals on the planet. One hundred years ago, there were 100,000 wild tigers.
By the year 2010, as few as 3,200 wild tigers remained.
This shocking 97% population decline was driven by rampant poaching and habitat loss. In 2010, governments of the 13 tiger range countries decided innovative conservation efforts were needed. The most ambitious and visionary species conservation goal was set: to double the number of wild tigers by 2022 – the next Chinese year of the tiger.
The goal is called Tx2 running by WWF. 
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396. What is MAC address ?

A media access control address (MAC address) of a computer is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC addresses are used as a networkaddress for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet and Wi-Fi.
A MAC address is given to a network adapter when it is manufactured. It is hardwired or hard-coded onto your computer's network interface card (NIC) and is unique to it. Something called the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) translates an IP address into a MAC address.
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http://telegra.ph/397-What-is-cartilage-06-22
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398. How Glass is made ?

Glass is made by melting together several minerals at very high temperatures. Silica in the form of sand is the main ingredient and this is combined with soda ash and limestone and melted in a furnace at temperatures of 1700°C. Other materials can be added to produce different colours or properties.
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399. How does the baby breathe in uterus?

A baby does not need to breathe in the uterus. Everything that it needs for it's growth is provided to it by its supply line: the umbilical cord. This cord connect the blood circulation of child with mother. The foetus gets nutrition and oxygen through the umbilical cord. The waste products of the foetus are thrown out into the blood circulation of mother and are excreted by mother. After the birth of the baby, the umbilical cord is no longer required and cut off.
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400. What is Geo Thermal Energy ?

Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energyrange from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
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401. What is an OLED screen?

An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. An OLED display can be driven with a passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) control scheme.
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402. What is Carbon Footprint ?

A carbon footprint is defined as: The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Typically, a carbon footprint is calculated by estimating not just the CO2 emissions that the activity in question causes, but also any emissions of other greenhouse gases (such as methane and nitrous oxide) and in some cases other types of climate impacts as well, such as vapour trails from aeroplanes.
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403. What is Bio-Grid ?

BioGRID is an online biological interaction repository with data compiled through comprehensive curation efforts. Protein Interactions, Genetic Interactions, Chemical Interactions, Post-Translational Modifications.
Data release frequency‎: ‎Monthly (4 Weeks)
Data format‎: ‎Custom flat files, PSI-MI, MITAB.
Organisms‎: ‎All.
Primary citation‎: ‎Stark & al. (2006)
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404. What are magnetars?

A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field. The magnetic field decay powers the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays.
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405. What is Carbon Sequestration ?

Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels.
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406. What is Hypothalamus ?

Hypothalamus: a part of the brain that controls things like thirst, hunger, body temperature, and the release of many hormones.
A chemical message released in the body by cells and glands that affects other cells in an organism.
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407. What is Ruby and Sapphire ?

Ruby and Sapphire are oxides of Aluminium. They have the same chemical composition and crystal structure - they are both varieties of the mineral corundum. Rubies: The most desired variety of corundum is the ruby. The red color is produced by trace amounts of chromium in the mineral.
Ruby is the red variety, and Sapphire is the variety that encompasses all other colors, although the most popular and valued color of Sapphire is blue.
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408. What is the relationship between color and energy in stars?

Most stars that we see in the night sky appear silver or whitish to our eyes. In reality, the colours of the stars differ from one another, ranging from blue, yellow, orange and red. Different colored stars send out different kinds of energy. The blue stars send their energy through ultra-violet rays, while blue-white, white, yellow-white, yellow, orange and red stars send out their energy in heat waves.
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409. What is Biodiesel ?

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or 'fossil' diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. The process used to convert these oils to Biodiesel is called transesterification.
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410. What is Kohinoor Diamond ?

The Koh-i-Noor is a large, colourless diamond that was found near Guntur.
Queen Elizabeth II in right of the Crown. The Koh-i-Noor (Persian for Mountain of Light; also spelled Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur) is a large, colourless diamond that was found near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh, India, possibly in the 13th century.
Mine of origin‎: ‎Kollur Mine‎, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Original owner‎: ‎Kakatiya dynasty

Owner‎: ‎Queen Elizabeth II in right of the Crown.

Weight‎: ‎105.602 carats (21.1204 g)

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411. Why third molars are called wisdom teeth ?

The eruption of our third molars marks a transitional period in our lives between adolescence and adulthood. It is thought that with age, we become wiser and more mature. Thus, these late arrivers were nicknamed "wisdom teeth." Wisdom teeth may come in straight, not causing any problems with the other teeth.
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth. They are more developed in mammals. 
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412. What is Noble Prize ?

The Nobel Prize is the legacy of Sweden's Alfred Nobel (1833–1896). Prizes are awarded to ‘those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.’ When he signed his last will in 1895, Nobel declared that the bulk of his estate should be converted into a fund and invested in safe securities. The four institutions in Sweden and Norway (the two countries were united between 1814 and 1905) conferring the prizes were to be the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, the Academy in Stockholm and a committee of five people to be elected by the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget).
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413. Why are peppers hot?

An odorless, flavorless substance in peppers makes them hot. The culprit of the burning feeling you get from jalapeno-loaded Mexican food: chemical compounds called capsaicinoids. The odorless, flavorless substances are hidden in the white flesh inside of peppers.
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414. What causes red eyes in photos?

The red-eye effect in photography is the common appearance of red pupils in color photographs of eyes. It occurs when using a photographic flash very close to the camera lens (as with most compact cameras), in ambient low light. The effect appears in the eyes of humans, and of animals that have tapetum lucidum.
The tapetum lucidum is a biologic reflector system that is a common feature in the eyes of vertebrates. It normally functions to provide the light-sensitive retinal cells with a second opportunity for photon-photoreceptor stimulation, thereby enhancing visual sensitivity at low light levels.
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415. Who was the first non human to win the Oscars?

It was mickey mouse which was an animation character created by the owner of Disney Walt Disney in 1928.
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http://telegra.ph/416-What-is-chemistry-of-Fireworks-colour-07-04
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417. What is Satellite Phone ?

A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. They provide similar functionality to terrestrial mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and low-bandwidth internet access are supported through most systems.
Depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth or only specific regions.
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418. How does a motion detector light work?

Motion detectors are small electronic eyes that detect infrared waves—heat waves that radiate from moving objects. When the detector senses an object moving across its field of view, especially warmer objects such as people, animals and cars, it electronically turns on the lights. This technology is also used in Motion Sensor Cameras for security purposes.
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419. How do we judge the direction of a sound?

We can get the direction of sound only because we have two ears. The sound waves reach the right and left ear with a small time difference because the ears are at slightly different distances from the source of sound. The ear drums vibrate and the ear ossicle transmits the impulse to the inner ear. The inner ear sends it for the to the brain where the signals from both ears reach at marginally different times. The brain calculate the direction of the sound from the tiny difference in these times.
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420. Which city is commonly known as the Big Apple?

"The Big Apple" is a nickname for New York City. It was first popularized in the 1920s by John J. Fitz Gerald, a sports writer for the New York Morning Telegraph. Its popularity since the 1970s is due to a promotional campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau, known now as NYC & Company.
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421. What is a clepsydra ?

A clepsydra is an ancient device for measuring time by means of the flow of water from a container. A simple form of clepsydra was an earthenware vessel with a small opening through which the water dripped; as the water level dropped, it exposed marks on the walls of the vessel that indicated the time that had elapsed since the vessel was full.
Additional info: viscosity and temperature does not permit the accuracy of the clock by modern standards but usually they are refilled everyday and so the cumulative error is not usually much.
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422. How is websites made secure from hackers?

Website developers use a technology called cryptography which is the art and science of keeping information secure from unintended audiences, of encrypting it. Conversely, cryptanalysis is the art and science of breaking encoded data. Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data.
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423. What does G stand for in films?

In the words of the Motion Picture Association, G is for General Audiences — all ages admitted, meaning there is nothing in theme, language, nudity, sex, violence or other matters that the ratings board thinks would offend parents whose younger children view the picture.
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424. How does Satellite work ?

http://telegra.ph/How-does-Satellite-works-06-21
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425. What is The meaning of Limited (Ltd.) Company ?

In a  limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the  company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the  company. Limited companies  may be  limited  by shares or by guarantee. The former may be further divided into public  companies and private  companies.
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426. How does wireless Charger work ?

Inductive  charging  (also known as wireless charging) uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction. Energy is sent through an inductive coupling to an electrical device, which can then use that energy to charge batteries or run the device.
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427. What is Court Martial ?

A  court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment. In addition, courts-martial may be used to try prisoners of war for war crimes.
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428. What's the difference between an astronaut and a cosmonaut?

The distinction is that they are titles awarded by different space agencies. They both mean essentially the same thing and they both come from Greek. Cosmonaut  is used by the Russian Space Agency.  Astronaut is used by NASA, ESA, CSA, and JAXA.
An  astronaut  or  cosmonaut (Russian) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
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429. What is Bio Toilet ?

Bio-Digester is a decomposition mechanized  toilet  system which decomposes Human Excretory Waste in the digester tank using specific high graded bacteria further converting it into methane and water, discharged further to the desired surface.
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430. How does snow form?

Snow is formed when
temperatures are low
and there is moisture in
the atmosphere in the
form of tiny ice crystals.
When these tiny ice
crystals collide they
stick together in clouds
to become snowflakes.
If enough ice crystals
stick together, they'll
become heavy enough
to fall to the ground.
This tends to occur
when the temperature
is below 2°C. So it's not
expected in many parts
of Africa due to the heat.
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431. Who invented Telegram messenger ?

Telegram was launched in 2013 by brothers Nikolai and Pavel Durov, the founders of Russian VK, Russia's largest social network.  Telegram  Messenger LLP is an independent nonprofit company based in Berlin, Germany. Nikolai Durov  created the MTProto protocol that is the basis for the messenger, while  Pavel  provided financial support and infrastructure through his Digital Fortress fund with business partner Axel Neff, a third founder of Telegram. Telegram is registered as both an English LLP and an American LLC.
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432. What is Camera Pill & how does it work ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-Camera-Pill-and-how-does-it-work-07-10
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433. How does an airbag work ?

http://telegra.ph/How-does-air-bag-work-in-automobiles-07-11
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434. What is Gi-Fi ?

Gi-Fi or gigabit wireless refers to a wireless communication at a data rate of more than one billion bits (gigabit) per second. By 2004 some trade press used the term "Gi-Fi" to refer to faster versions of the IEEE 802.11 standards marketed under the trademark Wi-Fi. Some press reports called this "GiFi".
This leads to the development of a new technology called
Gi-Fi.
The Gi-Fi technology has faster information rate, low cost for short range transmission and consumes less power. Gi-Fi is developed on an integrated wireless transceiver chip.
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435. What is Chemical Weapons ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-chemical-weapons-07-10
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436. What is ANUGA?

ANUGA stands for Allgemeine Nahrungs Und Genußmittel Ausstellung (General Food and Non- essential Provisions Exhibition) .
It is the world’s biggest and most important trade fair for Food and beverage trade.
It takes place biennially (every 2 years)
India will be co-partner country in ANUGA 2017.
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437. What is Blue Eyes Technology ?

The main objective of  Blue eyes technology is to develop a computational machine having sensory and perceptual ability like those of humans. The Blue Eyes technology  system is a combination of a set of hardware and software systems. The hardware consists of a central system unit (CSU) and data acquisition unit (DAU).
Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact with humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings. The Blue Eyes technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings.
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437. What is Blue Eyes Technology ?

The main objective of  Blue eyes technology is to develop a computational machine having sensory and perceptual ability like those of humans. The Blue Eyes technology  system is a combination of a set of hardware and software systems. The hardware consists of a central system unit (CSU) and data acquisition unit (DAU).
Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact with humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings. The Blue Eyes technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings.
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438. Why can't we see light emitted from TV remote while a camera can?

The human eye can only detect wavelengths up to about 725 nm efficiently, so we don't see the beam from the IR remote.
Cameras, on the other hand, typically are made with silicon sensors, naturally sensitive to wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which gives a photon energy just slightly below the silicon band gap energy. Therefore the camera sensor does see beams from typical IR remotes.
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439. How many types of Pandas exist?

There are two types of Pandas in existence. The giant panda (which is the more popular type) and the red panda. They are both found in southwest China and feed majorly on bamboo.
The giant panda can attain a height of 4 to 6 feet. It lives in the forests of southwest China, and its diet consists largely of bamboo. The red panda is about 42 inches long, including its tail, and is found in southwest China and in the eastern Himalayas. While it relies on bamboo for most of its sustenance, it also dines on berries, insects and bird eggs. Both types of pandas are endangered.
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440. How do 3D movies work ?

http://telegra.ph/How-do-3D-films-work-07-14
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441. What is Quasar ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-a-Quasar-07-11
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442. What is Blue Brain Technology ?

The  Blue Brain, a Swiss national brain initiative, aims to create a digital reconstruction of the brain by  reverse engineering  mammalian brain circuitry. The mission of the project, founded in May 2005 by the Brain and Mind Institute of the  École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, is to use biologically-detailed digital reconstructions and simulations of the mammalian brain (brain simulation) to identify the fundamental principles of brain structure and function in health and disease.
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443. Why do various planets appear to be of different colours?

Each planet has a different colour, because of its unique compositions. Mercury is grey. Since this planet has no atmosphere, we see only the dark rocky surfaces with plains, craters and ridges like those on the Moon. Venus is yellowish white due to the thickness of is colourless sulphuric acid clouds. Mars, the red orange planet is covered with a red dust of iron oxide. It has some spectacular features like volcanoes and enormous mountains. Jupiter has white and orange bands. Ammonia clouds cause the white bands, while orange is due to the ammonium hydrosulphide clouds. The north of Saturn is blue and the south, pale yellow. The ring around the planet blocks the Sun's rays from reaching the northern half. Uranus and Neptune appears light blue due to the methane clouds. Neptune is slightly darker blue because of its great distance from the sun. When watched from space Earth appears to be light-blue with white patches of clouds.
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444. How was pregnancy tested back then?

Ancient Egyptians mixed the urine with grains. At least, they
knew where to look at. In the middle ages, urine samples were mixed with alcohol.
The samples were also analysed based on colour. Around the 19th century, focus
was on structures seen under the microscope. Early 20th century, they injected the tested urine into rabbits. Early 60s, they reacted antibodies
with the samples. It had a lot of false positive results.
Presently, blood and urine samples are tested for levels of a specific hormone hCG
(human chorionic
gonadotropin). This is the most reliable of the bunch.
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445. What is Paraffin Wax ?

Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid derivable from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F); its boiling point is greater than 370 °C (698 °F). Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles;  dyed paraffin wax can be made into crayons. It is distinct from kerosene, another petroleum product that is sometimes called paraffin.
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446. Why are local disks in computers labelled with alphabets C, D, E and not with A and B?

Have you seen a floppy? Floppies were a type of disk storage used earlier, before the current system of storage came into existence. Floppy disk drives were named with the letters A and B. When hard disk drives became standard in most computers, they were logically labelled 'C' since the first two letters were already used for these floppy drives. Though floppy disk drives are no longer widely used, hard disks are still labelled from 'C' onwards.
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447. What are the types of SIM ?

There are basically 3 types of SIMs:

Non-programable - cannot be programmed and must be replaced with a new SIM if changing SIM info.

Programable - integrated into the phone, can be reprogrammed, i.e., does not have to be replaced if changing info (also referred to as embedded).

Soft SIM - an application, not a separate piece of hardware, in the phone, it can be programmed.
Soft SIMs are not really deployed yet ,because of security concerns.
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448. What is VR Technology ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-VR-Technology-07-16
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449. What is reality of Nagasaki bomb attack in 1945 ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-the-reality-of-Nagasaki-atomic-bomb-attack-in-1945-07-14
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450. What is purpose of filter in cigarettes ?

A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles inhaled during the combustion of a cigarette. 
Filters also reduce the harshness of the smoke.
Most cigarette filters are made of the same material as camera film (cellulose acetate). Each individual filter is made of thousands of tiny fibers. The inside of the filter is painted white to make it appear clean. During smoking, these fibers can come off into your mouth and be inhaled into your lungs.
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451. What is E-mail Spoofing?

Ans- E-mail spoofing is the forgery of an email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source. Email spoofing is a tactic used in phishing and spam campaigns because people are more likely to open an email when they think it has been sent by a legitimate source.
The goal of email spoofing is to get recipients to open, and possibly even respond to, a solicitation.
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452. What is bleed holes ?

This is the reason for those holes ( Bleed Holes ) in the windows of Flight:
Flying 35,000 feet above the ground, the air pressure is very low, The cabin of the plane is pressurised so much that anyone if exposed to that low air pressure can just pass out. In order to avoid anything like this, the cabin is pressurised to a greater extent compared to outside air.
This pressure is not good for the plane but for the passengers and that is why there’s a need to release some of the strain this puts on the aircraft. These holes named as bleed holes help in strain releasing and play an integral role in giving us a safe fly.
These bleed holes allow pressure to be balanced out between the cabin and gap between panes. It is with these holes that the internal moisture is released, no frost covering occurs on the mirror and no view blockage occurs.
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453. What does Captcha [ C.A.P.T.C.H.A ] stand for ?

Captcha stands for:
Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers
and Humans Apart.
It is used by many websites to make it harder for automated
bots to download information from them.
This bots are usually made by hackers and so many websites use this technology to counter them. it's not always successful because the bots are getting more sophisticated.
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454. What is Cyber Terrorism ?

Cyber terrorism is the use of Internet based terror attacks, done deliberately in order to create disturbances or havoc in usual working of the internet.  Since, many computers are connected through internet, the chances of high disruption in computer related services in personal as well commercial devices. Attacks through cyber terrorism can be in form of various illegal activities whose number is on a constant increase, a few are most lethal and common. These include attacks from viruses, attacks from Trojans, attacks from BOTS, attacks on databases, black hat hacking etc.
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455. Where does the oxygen we breathe come from?

Gaseous oxygen was created on the Earth about 3.5 billion years ago. At that time, the UV light of the sun decomposed the water vapour molecules present in the atmosphere, and released oxygen and hydrogen. But a major part of the oxygen immediately reacted with other substances, so that it was no longer available in the atmosphere as gas. Oxygen was also produced by the seas, where the 'blue algae' carried out photosynthesis. These bacteria converted sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy. In the process, gaseous oxygen was released as a 'waste product', which accumulated in the atmosphere. About one billion years ago, about one-twentieth (4%) of the atmosphere consisted of oxygen.
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456. What is James webb space telescope?

(1) JWST is the largest-ever space telescope.
(2) It is expected to be launched in 2018 following the in-depth testing.
(3) It is bigger and more powerful than NASA’s operational Hubble Space Telescope.
(4) It is an infrared telescope.
(5) It is the formal successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope. After its launch it will be the premier observatory of the next decade.
(6) It is an international collaboration between of about 17 countries including NASA, European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

(7) Applications:

 It will help in broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology.

 It will help to understand the origins of the universe, evolution of our own Solar System, search for signs of life on faraway planets.
 It can also analyze the atmospheres of exoplanets that pass in front of their stars.

 It will look at a large number of things in the universe including icy moons, distant exoplanets and galaxy clusters.
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457. How tattoo ink is made?

Manufacturers usually don't reveal their ingredients and recipes. Commonly Professional tatto inks are made from iron oxides (rust), metal salts, plastics. Homemade or traditional tattoo inks are made from pen ink, soot, dirt, blood, or other ingredients.
Heavy metals used for colors include mercury (red); lead (yellow, green, white); cadmium (red, orange, yellow); nickel (black); zinc (yellow, white); chromium (green); cobalt (blue); aluminium (green, violet); titanium (white); copper (blue, green); iron (brown, red, black); and barium (white). Metal oxides used include ferrocyanide and ferricyanide (yellow, red, green, blue). Organic chemicals used include azo-chemicals (orange, brown, yellow, green, violet) and naptha-derived chemicals (red). Carbon (soot or ash) is also used for black. Other elements used as pigments include antimony, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, lithium, selenium, and sulphur.
Tattoo ink manufacturers typically blend the heavy metal pigments and/or use lightening agents (such as lead or titanium) to reduce production costs.
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458. What is Wireless Electricity Technology?

Wireless power transfer (WPT),wireless power transmission, wireless energy transmission, or electromagnetic power transfer is the transmission of electrical energy without wires. Wireless power transmission technologies use time-varying electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields.
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459. What did the Europeans gain by exploring Africa?

With the discovery of the sea route to India, the Europeans became increasingly familiar with the continent of Africa; explorers particularly took note of its extensive and diverse natural reserves. Gold and diamonds were found in plenty in the south of Africa. The British and the Boers fought here for a good bargain. Even the Churches began to take interest in this continent and sent their missionaries deep into interior of Africa. From all over Africa, especially Timbuktu, numerous tribal people were caught and forcibly sent over to America as slaves.
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460. What happens in an atom bomb explosion?

Unlike an atomic power plant, where a chain reaction for splitting uranium is allowed to run in a controlled way, in an atomic bomb it runs at lightning speed and totally out of control. The explosion gives rise to temperature of over 10 million °C. This strong heating creates an immense pressure wave. The pressure and the heat wave destroy everything in its surroundings. Tens of thousands of people were killed immediately when the two American atom bombs were thrown on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively. The infamous 'mushroom cloud' rock up to a height of 13 km and about 20 minutes later radioactive rain fell from this cloud on the two cities. A number of people have died or have developed abnormalities which are the consequences of the radioactivity caused during the explosion.
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461. Why is it difficult for the wandering albatross to take off?

Wandering albatrosses are quite heavy, and have to do a warm-up before lifting themselves up into the air-just like an aircraft that increases its speed on the runway. They often have difficulty if the wind speed is below 12 km/h. They usually glide when they are in the air because a lot of energy is consumed in flapping their wings. Albatrosses, which have the largest wingspan of 3-5 m in the animal kingdom, cover thousands of kilometres in the air and are capable of remaining in the air without flapping their wings for several hours. They mate for life and return to the small islands to the north of Antarctic for breeding.
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462. How do bats orient themselves with ultrasounds?

Bats cannot see very well. To orient themselves during their night flights, they emit ultrasounds. We cannot hear these sounds. The ultrasonic waves falling on obstacles or preys get 'reflected' back and reach the sensitive ears of bats. Thus, they come to know what all is present around them and where their prey is. This concept is also used in shipping to determine the depth of the sea using a device called sonar. It comprises a sound transmitter, a receiver, and a clock. The time difference between sending and receiving sound waves is measured, which is used to calculate the depth of the sea.
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463. Why is the moon invisible at times?

We cannot see the moon, which reflects the light from the sun, when sunlight falling on it is not visible from the Earth, or when something comes in the way of the reflected light. The first phenomenon occurs every four weeks at new moon. At this time, the moon is positioned between the Earth and the sun. It reflects the light, but from the 'invisible side' so that we cannot see its illuminated surface. The second phenomenon occurs during a lunar eclipse. In this case, the Earth is positioned on a straight line between the sun and the moon, and consequently the sunlight does not fall on the moon.
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464. Which planet has the strongest winds?

Neptune has the strongest winds in the Solar System. Winds whip clouds of frozen methane across the planet at speeds of more than 1,200 miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per hour). This is close to the top speed of a U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet!
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465. What is the Largest mobile Network in the world?

With subscriber strength of 851.2 million, China Mobile is undoubtedly the champion mobile network operator in the world. China Mobile was conceived in 1999 as a result of the China Telecom break which was originally founded on September 3rd, 1997. The headquarters of China Mobile are located in Beijing, People's Republic of China, and it has since dominated the mobile service industry in China. China Mobile is under the direct control of the People's Republic of China as it is an enterprise owned by the state. China Mobile has a market share of 70% and continues to control the vast majority of its mobile services market with the remaining 30% being shared between China Unicom with 20% shares and China Telecom with 10% shares in the mobile service market.
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466. Which planet is the least dense?

If you're looking for a place a bit more airy, you could always visit Saturn. The gas giant is the least dense planet in the solar system with an average density of a scant 0.70 grams per cubic centimeter.
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467. Who invented the lock and key?

Linus Yale, Jr.
In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr.  was inspired by the original 1840s pin-tumbler lock designed by his father, thus inventing and patenting a smaller flat key with serrated edges as well as pins of varying lengths within the lock itself, the same design of the pin-tumbler lock which still remains in use today.
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468. What is a circuit breaker in stock exchange?

A circuit breaker is a financial regulatory instrument that is in place to prevent stock market crashes from occurring. Since their inception, circuit breakers have been modified to prevent both speculative gains and dramatic losses within a small time frame. As a result of being triggered, circuit breakers either stop trading for a small amount of time or close trading early in order to allow accurate information to flow amongst market makers and for institutional traders to assess their positions and make rational decisions.
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469. What makes the center of Ice Cubes white ?

As the water freezes, it wants to form a regular crystalline structure (ice). That means impurities like oxygen and other dissolved gasses are pushed away from the crystallization front into the remaining liquid. This means that the last parts of the ice cube to crystallize end up with most of the impurities. If you’ll take a look at your photo of the ice cubes, you’ll note that the parts of the ice cube that were at the bottom of the tray are the milky colored bits. That’s because those were the last parts to freeze. The ice cubes in your tray froze from the top downward, which pushed the contaminant air downward until it was trapped at the bottom and had nowhere else to go.
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470. Which is the shortest war ever fought?

The war between Zanzibar (presently part of Tanzania) and the imperial British is the shortest war ever fought. It lasted for about 40 minutes. The immediate cause was the ascension of new sultan who was not ready to cooperate with the imperial power, thus British gave him an ultimatum to surrender which he rejected. In the ensuing battle their defense failed pathetically before the mighty royal navy.
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471. What Is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and certain bacteria to harness energy from sunlight into chemical energy. Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration; it takes in the carbon dioxide produced by all breathing organisms and reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere.
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472. What is the fastest fighter jet in the world?

The MiG-25 was also the fastest plane ever offered for fun flights by MiGFlug – it was mainly used for Edge of Space flights. Number 3: Lockheed YF-12. This jet was an American interceptor prototype with a top speed of mach 3.35. It looked almost like the SR-71 Blackbird and featured three Air-to-Air missiles.
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473. How do we measure speed of wind?

http://telegra.ph/How-do-we-measure-speed-of-wind-07-27
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474. How are bubbles formed in boiling water?

At room temperature, there is always some air dissolved in water. The colder the water, the more air is dissolved. Air becomes less soluble in water as the temperature rises. When the water boils the air is released in the form of bubbles. Two thousand years ago, an attempt was made to use the power of steam with Heron's ball, but the great breakthrough came only with the steam engines. The steam engine improved by James Watt is the most well-known. A little later the steam engines were used to drive locomotives and paddle steamers – the modern steam turbines followed later.
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475. Can Rainbows be full circles?

Yes! Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer normally sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground, and centred on a line from the sun to the observer's eye.
In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it.
In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc.
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476. How does fastag work ?

RFID tag called FASTag is mounted on the vehicle's windscreen. As the vehicle reaches the toll plaza, a unique identification number that is embedded on the tag is read by road side RFID reader. Applicable toll amount is deducted from a prepaid account that is linked to that particular FASTag.
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477. How do Pay Phones Work ?

Pay phones, or coin phones, are activated by the weight of the coin as it is inserted. The coin activates a pulse, and the pulse starts the dial tone of the phone. Each pay phone is programed with calling rates and fees.
An electronic device monitoring the current rates for local and long-distance calling is installed in the payphone while it is being made. This device also contains information about calling cards and collect call data.
When the dialer attempts to make a call, the phone will calculate the amount of money needed for the call based on the length of time the dialer wants to talk. As the time ends, a voice will request additional money to be deposited to continue the call. If money is not deposited, the phone will automatically disconnect the call when the deposited money runs out.
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478. Why pirates cover their one eye ?

Some assume pirates wore eye patches to cover a missing eye or an eye that was wounded in battle, but in fact, an eye patch was more likely to be used to condition the eye so the pirate could fight in the dark.
It takes an average human eye about 25 minutes to fully adapt from bright sunlight to seeing in complete darkness—if a pirate was fighting on deck in the light, then had to go under the deck to fight downstairs where it is usually pretty dark, that would be a long time to go without being able to see.  The eye patch could be used to prepare one eye to see in the dark, so when they would go below deck they could swap over the eye patch from one eye to the other and see with the eye that has already adjusted to low light conditions. This would allow them to instantly in the dark.
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479. What is Brain Gate Technology ?

http://telegra.ph/What-is-Brain-Gate-Technology-07-10
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480. What is Cookies ?

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.
Cookies are messages that web servers pass to your web browser when you visit Internet sites. Your browser stores each message in a small file, called cookie.txt . When you request another page from the server, your browser sends the cookie back to the server.