GRE_Borzabadi
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GRE_Borzabadi


توضیحات: Your Dr. GRE 88968376
شناسه: gre_borzabadi@
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GRE_Borzabadi

Though the volume of radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants is —-----; the problem of how to dispose of that waste is not: rather, it is of major importance.
A. unmanageable
B. inevitable
C. significant
D. inconsequential
E. deceptive

UNMANAGEABLE (ADJ.): غیر قابل مهار – غیر قابل کنترل
If you describe something as unmanageable, you mean that it is difficult to use, deal with, or control.
Example: People were visiting the house every day, sometimes in unmanageable numbers.

INEVITABLE (ADJ.): گریزناپذیر – غیر قابل پیش گیری
If something is inevitable, it is certain to happen and cannot be prevented or avoided.
Example: The changing of the seasons is an inevitable aspect of the Earth’s climate.

SIGNIFICANT (ADJ.): مهم
A significant amount or effect is large enough to be important or affect a situation to a noticeable degree.
Example: It is the first drug that seems to have a very significant effect on this disease.

INCONSEQUENTIONAL (ADJ.): بی اهمیت – کم – کوچک
Something that is inconsequential is not important.
Example: Seemingly inconsequential details can sometimes contain significant clues.

DECEPTIVE (ADJ.): گول زننده
If something is deceptive, it encourages you to believe something which is not true.
Example: Johnston isn't tired of London yet, it seems, but appearances can be deceptive.


Correct answer: D

Though the volume of radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants is INCONSEQUENTIAL, the problem of how to dispose of that waste is not: rather, it is of major importance.

ترجمه: اگرچه حجم مواد زائد رادیواکتیوی که توسط نیروگاه برق هسته ای تولید میشود کم است اما مشکل خلاص شدن از این زائدات اینطور نیست. برعکس، این مشکل از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است.

توضیح: کلمه though در بخش اول نشان از تضاد دارد. بخش دوم می گوید که خلاصی ار زائدات هسته ای آسان نیست یعنی مهم است بنابراین جواب D است .یعنی حجم زائدات کم یا بی اهمیت است ولی چگونگی خلاصی از آنها بی اهمیت نیست.

.
GRE_Borzabadi

The jury's verdict was such a surprise that the populace rioted in the streets; nothing less than a reversal of the verdict could ____ them.
A. mollify
B. emulsify
C. denigrate
D. petrify
E. disabuse

MOLLIFY (V.): خشنود کردن
If you mollify someone, you do or say something to make them less upset or angry. (FORMAL)
The investigation was undertaken primarily to mollify pressure groups.

EMULSIFY (V.): ترکیب کردن یا شدن
When two liquids of different thicknesses emulsify or when they are emulsified, they combine. (TECHNICAL)
It is the pressure which releases the coffee oils; these emulsify and give the coffee its rich, velvety texture.

DENIGRATE (V.): تحقیر کردن – کوچک شمردن
If you denigrate someone or something, you criticize them unfairly or insult them.
The amendment prohibits obscene or indecent materials which denigrate the objects or beliefs of a particular religion.

PETRIFY (V.): ترساندن
If something petrifies you, it makes you feel very frightened.
Prison petrifies me and I don't want to go there.

DISABUSE SB OF STH (V.): کسی را از اشتباه درآوردن
If you disabuse someone of something, you tell them or persuade them that what they believe is in fact untrue. (FORMAL)
Their view of country people was that they like to please strangers. I did not disabuse them of this notion.


Correct answer: A
The jury's verdict was such a surprise that the populace rioted in the streets; nothing less than a reversal of the verdict could mollify them.
ترجمه: رای هیئت منصفه دادگاه چنان تعجب برانگیز بود که مردم در خیابان ها دست به شورش زدند: چیزی کمتر از پس برگرداندن این رای نمتوانست آنه را راضی کند.
توضیح: رابطه بین دو بخش حمله رابطه علت و معلولی است. به واقع علامت : بین دوجمله به شما نشان میدهد که باید قسمj بعد از علامت را بخوانید تا بتوانید جای خالی را پر کنید. از علامت های colon و semi-colon به این منظور بسیار استفاده میشود.
GRE_Borzabadi

It is a paradox of the Victorians that they were both ___ and, through their empire, cosmopolitan.
A. capricious
B. insular
C. mercenary
D. idealistic
E. intransigent


CAPRICIOUS (ADJ.): دمدمی مزاج – ناپایدار
Someone who is capricious often changes their mind unexpectedly.
Example: Gerald found that his wife was easily bored, capricious and unpredictable.
Something that is capricious often changes unexpectedly. (LITERARY)
Example: Both sides were troubled throughout by a capricious wind.

INSULAR (ADJ.): غریبه ترس – غریبه گریز
If you say that someone is insular, you are being critical of them because they are unwilling to meet new people or to consider new ideas.
Example: The old image of the insular, xenophobic Brit has altered dramatically with this new Euro-conscious generation.

MECENARY (ADJ.): پولکی
If you describe someone as mercenary, you are criticizing them because you think that they are only interested in the money that they can get from a particular person or situation.
Example: As Ted is a mercenary man he left his wife to get married to a woman from a rich family.

IDEALISTIC (ADJ.): یانه - خیالبافانه ایده آل گرا
If you describe someone as idealistic, you mean that they have ideals, and base their behavior on these ideals, even though this may be impractical.
Example: Older mothers tend to be too idealistic about the pleasures of motherhood.

INTRANSIGENT (ADJ.): لجوج – لجوجانه
If you describe someone as intransigent, you mean that they refuse to behave differently or to change their attitude to something. (FORMAL)
Example: They put pressure on the Government to change its intransigent stance.
Example: The worry is that the radicals will grow more intransigent.


Correct answer: B

It is a paradox of the Victorians that they were both INSULAR and, through their empire, cosmopolitan.

ترجمه: این تضادی در مردم عصر ویکتوریا بود که هم غریبه گریز بودند و هم بخاطر امپراطوری خود جهان شمول هم بودند.
توضیح: کلید حل مشکل کلمه PARADOX است که نشان میدهد که دو کلمه یا ایده مخالف در متن باید وجود داشته باشد. کلمه COSMOPOLITAN در آخر جمله شما را به این نتیجه میرساند که باید کلمه مخالفش را انتخاب کنید که همان INSULAR است. @GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Griffith's early output was remarkably —-----: it included not only the standard comedies, melodramas, westerns, and thrillers, but also such novel ties as adaptations from Browning and Tennyson, and treatments of social issues.
(A) controversial
(B) original
(C) eclectic
(D) inventive
(E) impulsive

CONTROVERSIAL (ADJ.): مناقشه برانگیز
If you describe something or someone as controversial, you mean that they are the subject of intense public argument, disagreement, or disapproval.
Example: Immigration is a controversial issue in many countries.

ORIGINAL (ADJ.): بدیع – تازه
If you describe someone or their work as original, you mean that they are very imaginative and have new ideas.
Example: It is one of the most original works of imagination in the language.

ECLECTIC (ADJ.): - گوناگون- گلچین – برگزیده- گزیده از چندین منبع
An eclectic collection of objects, ideas, or beliefs is wide-ranging and comes from many different sources. (FORMAL)
Example: ...an eclectic collection of paintings, drawings, and prints.

INVENTIVE (ADJ.): نوآورانه – خلاقانه
An inventive person is good at inventing things or has clever and original ideas.
Example: It inspired me to be more inventive with my own cooking.

IMPULSIVE (ADJ.): عجول – عجولانه
If you describe someone as impulsive, you mean that they do things suddenly without thinking about them carefully first.
Example: He is too impulsive to be a responsible prime minister.

Correct answer: C
Griffith's early output was remarkably ECLECTIC: it included not only the standard comedies, melodramas, westerns, and thrillers, but also such novelties as adaptations from Browning and Tennyson, and treatments of social issues.

ترجمه:تولیدات آغازین گریفیث فوق العاده گوناگون بود: این تولیدات نه تنها کمدی های معمول، ملودارم، فیلمهای وسترن و هیجانی شامل را می شد بلکه آنچنان کارهای تازه ای چون اقتباس هایی از برانینگ و تنیسون و نیز برگرفته هایی از مسائل اجتماعی را در خود جای میداد.

توضیح: اساسا وقتی بعد از قسمت اول متنی colon (:) آمده باشد، آن قسمت تعریف جای خالی در قسمت قبل از آن است. در این جمله نیز گوناگونی تولیدات گریفیث که با ذکر انواع مختلف فیلم توصیف شده است شما را به کلمه ECLECTIC راهنمائی میکند.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

After years of assiduously cultivating an image of integrity, the mayor was acutely aware that just one scandal could forever _____ his reputation in the public's eyes.
A. bolster
B. besmirch
C. surmount
D. promulgate
E. disguise

BOLSTER (V.): بیشتر کردن – تقویت کردن
If you bolster something such as someone's confidence or courage, you increase it.
Example: Hopes of an early cut in interest rates bolstered confidence.
Example: Britain is free to adopt policies to bolster its economy.

BESMIRCH (V.): خراب کردن – لکه دار کردن
If you besmirch someone or their reputation, you say that they are a bad person or that they have done something wrong, usually when this is not true. (LITERARY)
Example: Lawyers can besmirch reputations and disrupt social harmony.

SURMOUNT (V.): غلبه کردن – فائق آمدن
If you surmount a problem or difficulty, you deal successfully with it.
Example: I realized I had to surmount the language barrier.

PROMULGATE (V.): اعلام عمومی کردن
If people promulgate a new law or a new idea, they make it widely known. (FORMAL)
Example: The oil and shipping industries undertook to promulgate a voluntary code.

DSIGUISE (V.): مخفی کردن
To disguise something means to hide it or make it appear different so that people will not know about it or will not recognize it.
Example: Their healthy image disguises the fact that they are highly processed foods.

Correct answer: B
After years of assiduously cultivating an image of integrity, the mayor was acutely aware that just one scandal could forever BESMIRCH his reputation in the public's eyes.

ترجمه: بعد از سالها تلاش سخت کوشانه برای ایجاد چهره ای از صداقت از خود، شهردار به خوبی میدانست که تنها یک رسوائی میتوانست شهرت او را تا ابد در دید مردم خراب کند.

توضیح: آنچه شما را به جواب میرساتند کلمه SCANDAL ( رسوائی) است. دانش عمومی شما می گوید که رسوائی شهرت خوب را خراب می کند ( می گویم خوب زیرا در قسمت اول جمله کلمه IMAGE ( شهرت) با INTEGRITY (صداقت ) وصف شده است.
@GRE_ Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

SENTNECE WRITING
معضل کامای اضافی ( بخش 1)
معضلات شما دوستان من در جمله نویسی کم نیست. از این به بعد با هم روزی یه معضل را می نگریم.
معضل 1: گذاشتن بیخودی کاما وقتی فاعل یا دقیقتر نهاد جمله طولانی می شود.
به جمله زیر نگاه کنید:
Wrong: However, how learning materials are to be presented, has long been considered as a subject of controversy.
نهاد جمله how learning materials are to be presented است. نویسنده عزیز با خود فکر کرده مگه میشه نهاد اینقدر طولانی باشه. یه کاما قبل فعل گذاشته که درستش کنه که بدبختانه خرابش کرده.
Right: However, how learning materials are to be presented has long been considered as a subject of controversy.
حالا نمونه های زیر رو هم که همین اشتباه رو دارن نگاه کنید.
Sample 1:
Wrong: However, what is considered as the best way to study about a country, has long been considered as a subject of debate.
Right: However, what is considered as the best way to study about a country has long been considered as a subject of debate.

Sample 2:
Wrong: So, producing a movie, creates a lot of jobs in my country.
Right: So, producing a movie creates a lot of jobs in my country.
GRE_Borzabadi

SENTNECE WRITING
معضل کامای اضافی ( بخش 2)
یکی دیگر از کاربردهای اضافی کاما استفاده از آن پس از کلمات ربط در شبه جمله های قیدی ( Adverb Clause) مثل کلمات زیر است:
because – since- when –after –before- although – even though - whereas
دلیل این اشتباه آن است که دوستان از قبل میدانند که بعد از Conjunctive Adverbs یعنی کلماتی مثل therefore- hence- - thus - however و غیره کاما بکار میبریم و چون کلمه ای مثل because با therefore قرابت معنایی دارند دوستان نقطه گذاری را هم یکی فرض میکنند و بعد از because به غلط کاما میگذارند.

در اشتباهی فاحش و ترسناک تر برخی بدنبال that به معنی "که" به فرض آنکه این حرف ربط هم از همان قاعده کلماتی مانند therefore تبعیت می کند به غلط کاما می آورند.
به جمله زیر نگاه کنید:
Wrong: First of all, the writer contends because, no Palean boats have been found, transferring woven baskets from Palea to Lithos had not been possible.
نگارنده این جمله با یکی دانستن نقطه گذاری because با کلماتی چون therefore به اشتباه کاما آورده است.
Right: First of all, the writer contends because, no Palean boats have been found, transferring woven baskets from Palea to Lithos had not bene possible.
حالا نمونه های زیر را هم که همین اشتباه را دارند ملاحظه کنید.
@GRE_Borzabadi
Sample 1
Wrong: I am tempted to use it because, I think it is new and may impress the reader.
Right: I am tempted to use it because I think it is new and may impress the reader.

Sample 2
Wrong: I have come to the conclusion that, there is no need to wait for 20 years.
Right: I have come to the conclusion that there is no need to wait for 20 years.
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GRE_Borzabadi

The actor’s performance was so absurdly _____that John felt a little ashamed to have to resort to tissues in the final scene.
A. proficient
B. unfeasible
C. seditious
D. maudlin
E. accommodating

@GRE_Borzabadi

PROFICIENT (ADJ.): کارآمد – توانا
If you are proficient in something, you can do it well.
Example: A great number of Egyptians are proficient in foreign languages.

UNFEASIBLE (ADJ.): غیرعملی - نشدنی
If you say that something is unfeasible, you mean that you do not think it can be done, made, or achieved.
Example: The weather made it unfeasible to be outdoors.

SEDITIOUS (ADJ.): فتنه انگیز
A seditious act, speech, or piece of writing encourages people to fight against or oppose the government.
Example: He fell under suspicion for distributing seditious pamphlets.

MAUDLIN (ADJ.): خیلی احساسی – احساساتی شدن بیش از حد
If you describe someone as maudlin, you mean that they are being sad and sentimental in a foolish way, perhaps because of drinking alcohol.
Example: It's so funny that displayed an almost maudlin concern for the welfare of animals

ACCOMMODATING (ADJ.): مایل به کمک – دست به خیر
If you describe someone as accommodating, you like the fact that they are willing to do things in order to please you or help you.
Example: I loved the way he was with her, very respectful, accommodating, and just a pleasant energy to be around.

Correct answer: D

@GRE_Borzabadi
The actor’s performance was so absurdly MAUDLIN that John felt a little ashamed to have to resort to tissues in the final scene.

ترجمه: بازی هنرپیشه آنقدر زیاده از حد احساسی بود که جان از اینکه در صحنه آخر گریه اش گرفت یه کم خجالت کشید.
توضیح: جمله حالت علت و معلول دارد. بازی هنر پیشه آنقدر احساسی بود که باعث گریه کردن جان شد. گزینه های دیگردر حالت معمول نمیتوانند باعث گریه شوند.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Without seeming unworldly, William James appeared wholly removed from the —------— of society, the conventionality of academe.
A. ethos
B. idealism
C. romance
D. paradoxes
E. commonplaces

@GRE_Borzabadi

ETHOS (N.): رفتار و باورها و روش های مشخص کننده‌ی یک فرد یا گروه - شعار
An ethos is the set of ideas and attitudes that is associated with a particular group of people or a particular type of activity. (FORMAL)
Example: The whole ethos of the hotel is effortless service.

IDEALISM (N.): ایده آل گرایی
Idealism is the beliefs and behavior of someone who has ideals and who tries to base their behavior on these ideals.
Example: An example of idealism is the belief of people who think they can save the world.


ROMANCE (N.): رابطه عشقی – هیجان – لذت
A romance is a relationship between two people who are in love with each other but who are not married to each other.
Example: After a whirlwind romance the couple announced their engagement in July.
Example: We want to recreate the romance and excitement that used to be part of rail journeys

PARADOXES (N.):تضاد ظاهری - اظهاری که ظاهرا متناقض است ولی شاید واقعا درست باشد
You describe a situation as a paradox when it involves two or more facts or qualities which seem to contradict each other.
Example: The paradox is that the region's most dynamic economies have the most primitive financial systems.

COMMONPLACES (N.): حرفهای تکرای و روزمره
A commonplace is a remark or opinion that is often expressed and is therefore not original or interesting.
Example: It is a commonplace to say that Northern Ireland is a backwater in the modern Europe.


Correct answer: E

@GRE_Borzabadi


Without seeming unworldly, William James appeared wholly removed from the COMMONPLACES of society, the conventionality of academe.

ترجمه: بدون آنکه غیر دنیوی بنمایاند، ویلیام جیمز کاملا از تکرار مکررات جامعه و حرف های متعارف جامعه دانشگاهی بدور است.

توضیح: کلید حل این مشکل بخش the conventionality of academe میباشد. وقتی این آدم از حرف های متعارف جامعه دانشگاهی بدور است بنابراین از حرف های تکراری و هر روزه مردم در جامعه هم متفاوت و بدور است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Coordinating Conjunctions & Comas
حروف ربط و کاما

این حروف ربط عبارتند از: and – but – or – so – yet – for – nor

نکته 1: وقتی از این حروف برای ربط دو و تعداد بیشتری جمله استفاده کنیم قبل از آنها کاما میگذاریم.
Example: I called her up, and I apologized for my insensitive remark.

نکته 2: وقتی از این حروف برای ربط بخشی هایی از یک جمله یا دو جمله ای که فاعل یکی از آنها حذف شده است استفاده می کنیم، کاما نباید بکار رود.
Example: I would share my information with Mary and John. ( کاما لازم نیست)
Example: I hurt Ted and apologized immediately. ( کاما لازم نیست)
@GRE_Borzabadi
هشدار: برخی از شما به اشتباه هر وقت این حروف ربط هفت گانه را میبینند بلافاصله قبل از آنها کاما میگذارید، درصورتیکه همانطور که گفته شد گاهی این کار کاملا غلط است. این اتفاق بیشتر وقتی روی میدهد که بخشهایی که به هم ربط داده می شوند کمی طولانی باشند. به مثال زیر دقت کنید.
Wrong: A plethora of readers desire to leaf through a traditional book, and do not want to change this pleasant experiences.
Right: a plethora of readers desire to leaf through a traditional book and do not want to change this pleasant experiences.
@GRE_Borzabadi
حال موردهای زیر را نیز بنگرید و شما از این اشتباهات نکنید.
Sample 1:
Wrong: The writer contends that Monarch books have been in business in the same location for more than twenty years, and has a large customer base.
Right: The writer contends that Monarch books have been in business in the same location for more than twenty years and has a large customer base.

Sample 2:
Right: Planting the genetically modified papayas usually puts an end to the ringspot problem ,but may cause a new problem.
Right: Planting the genetically modified papayas usually puts an end to the ringspot problem but may cause a new problem.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

A (i)_____ to disseminate the vast scientific knowledge of our time to nonscientists shows real (ii)_____ the magnificent achievement humanity is capable of, like allowing a great work of art to molder in a warehouse.

Blank (i)
A. triumph
B. failure
C. diffusion

Blank (ii)
D. indifference to
E. enthusiasm for
F. glory of

@GRE_Borzabadi
TRIUMPH (N.): پیروزی
A triumph is a great success or achievement, often one that has been gained with a lot of skill or effort.
Example: The championships proved to be a personal triumph for the coach.

FAILURE (N.): شکست – ناکامی
Failure is a lack of success in doing or achieving something, especially in relation to a particular activity.
Example: The marriage was a failure and they both wanted to be free of it.

DIFFUSION (N.): توزیع – اشاعه – انتشار
The diffusion of something such as knowledge or information is the distribution of it over a wide area or to a lot of people. (WRITTEN)
Example: Special thanks for Enea Ruzzettu and his wife Paola that are taking care to create a foundation for the diffusion of my books and ideas on the website.

INDIFFERENCE (N): بی تفاوتی
If you accuse someone of indifference to something, you mean that they have a complete lack of interest in it.
Example: The father's callous indifference to the serious problems of his son was really shocking.

ENTHUSIASM (N.): علاقه – شوق و اشتیاق
Enthusiasm is great eagerness to be involved in a particular activity which you like and enjoy or which you think is important.
Example: The lack of enthusiasm for unification among most West Germans fills him with disappointment.

GLORY (N.): شکوه – افتخار
Glory is the fame and admiration that you gain by doing something impressive.
Example: Walsham had his moment of glory when he won a 20km race.


Correct answer: B- D


@GRE_Borzabadi

A FAILURE to disseminate the vast scientific knowledge of our time to nonscientists shows real INDIFFERENCE TO the magnificent achievement humanity is capable of, like allowing a great work of art to molder in a warehouse.

ترجمه: ناکامی در رساندن دانش علمی عظیم عصر ما به غیردانشمندان نشان بی تفاوتی واقعی به دستاورد باشکوه علمی که بشر قادر به نیل به آن است می باشد، کاری به مثابه اینکه بگذاریم یک کار هنری بزرگ در یک انبار کپک بزند.

توضیح: آنچه مارا به جواب میرساند تشبیه آخر جمله است (کاری به مثابه اینکه بگذاریم یک کار هنری بزرگ در یک انبار کپک بزند.). با خواندن این بخش درمیابیم که ما با علم هم همین کار را کرده ایم یعنی گذاشته ایم گوشه ای دور از دسترس مردم کپک بزند (خاک بخورد) و ان را اشاعه نداده ایم.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The national bank has been uncommonly powerful in comparison to its counterparts in other nations. It retains this potency partly because its control of the nation 's banking system is (i) ) _____ governmental interference, and thus its actions remain largely (ii) _____ .

Blank (i)
A. unencumbered by
B. replete with
C. hindered by

Blank (ii)
D. compulsory
E. discretionary
F. bureaucratic

@GRE_Borzabadi

ENCUMBER (V.): کند کردن، مختل کردن، بازداشتن، دست و بال (کسی را) بستن
not impeded, slowed down, or retarded; free to move, advance, or go forward
Example: The tax plan will encumber many average Americans to the point they cannot take yearly vacations. ( UNECUMBERED: مختل نشده – دست و پا گیر نشده)
Example: "he needed to travel light and unencumbered"

COMPULSORY (ADJ.): اجباری
If something is compulsory, you must do it or accept it, because it is the law or because someone in a position of authority says you must.
Example:Many young men are trying to get away from compulsory military conscription.

REPLETE WITH (ADJ.): مملو از – پر از
To be replete with something means to be full of it. (FORMAL)
The Harbor was replete with boats.

DISCRETIONARY (ADJ.): بنا به تشخیص خود - بسته به صلاحدید
Discretionary things are not fixed by rules but are decided on by people in authority, who consider each individual case.
Example: A public official generally has qualified immunity from lawsuits that arise from his or her discretionary acts.

HINDER (V.): مانع شدن – جلوگیری کردن
If something hinders you, it makes it more difficult for you to do something or make progress.
Example: Landslides and bad weather are continuing to hinder the arrival of relief supplies to the area.

BUREAUCRATIC (ADJ.): دیوانسالاری – اداری دست پا گیر
Bureaucratic means involving complicated rules and procedures which can cause long delays.
Example: Although my boss sits directly across from me at work, I still have to follow the bureaucratic policy of requesting vacation days online.

Correct answer: A – E

@GRE_Borzabadi


The national bank has been uncommonly powerful in comparison to its counterparts in other nations. It retains this potency partly because its control of the nation 's banking system is UNENCUMBERED BY governmental interference, and thus its actions remain largely DISCRETIONARY .

ترجمه: این بانک ملی در مقایسه با همتاهای خود در کشورهای دیگر قدرت خیلی بیشتری داشته است. این بانک توانسته قدرتش را نگه دارد تا اندازه ای به این دلیل که کنترلی که بر سیستم بانکی کشور دارد مزاحمی چون دخالت دولت را ندارد و بنابراین انجام کارهایش تا اندازه زیادی به صلاحدید خودش است.

توضیح: ما باید دنبال آن باشیم که چرا این بانک در مقایسه با دیگر بانک ها در کشور های دیگر خیلی قوی است. جمله دوم کلمه interference کلمه ای منفی است که ما را به گزینه unencumbered هدایت می کند. حال وقتی دولت دخالتی ندارد بانک میتواند کار های خو د را بدور از تحمیل بنا به مقتضیات و تشخیص خود انجام دهد که همان منبع قوی بودن آن شده است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Conjunctive Adverbs
قیدهای ربطی

قیدهای ربطی برای ربط دو جمله استفاده می شوند و عبارتند از:
Therefore- thus – hence – consequently – Furthermore – also- besides – moreover – nevertheless – nonetheless – otherwise – however

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نقطه گذاری: قبل از این قیدها نقطه و یا semicolon (;) و بعد از آنها کاما بکارمی رود.

مثال:
Jeff was already late for work. However, he stopped at the club for a quick swim.

OR

Jeff was already late for work; however, he stopped at the club for a quick swim.

عبارات ربطی زیر هم از همان قاعده نقطه گذاری که در بالا آمد تبعیت می کنند.

as a matter of fact – in fact – as a result – for example – foe instance – in sum – in conclusion – in summary – on the one hand – on the other hand.

مثال:

This program has problems.For instance, it's hard to retrieve lost data.

OR
This program has problems; for instance, it's hard to retrieve lost data.


@GRE_Borzabadi

هشدار: چون این کلمات با برخی حروف ربط هفت گانه هم معنی هستند برخی از شما قبل از آنها به اشتباه کاما میگذارید. مثلا قبل از حرف ربط so وقتی دو جمله را ربط میدهد باید کاما گذاشت و لذا برخی از دوستان قبل از therefore که همین معنی را میدهد به جای نقطه یا semicolon به اشتباه کاما میگذارید.


Sample 1

Wrong: The government can post ads and increase its revenue, furthermore, artistic activities such as painting, singing, etc are also sponsored by the private sector.

Right: The government can post ads and increase its revenue. Furthermore, artistic activities such as painting, singing, etc are also sponsored by the private sector.


Sample 2

Wrong: It is crystal-clear that every society is in need of all fields of study ,however, sometimes the need for some fields may decrease.

Right: It is crystal-clear that every society is in need of all fields of study. However, sometimes the need for some fields may decrease.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

What they see in Tanaka is the one candidate capable of (i) _____ leadership in direct contrast to Williamson, whose term in office has been marred by (ii) _____.

Blank (i)
A. compassionate
B. decisive
C. nepotistic

Blank (ii)
D. grandstanding
E. partisanship
F. vacillation


@GRE_Borzabadi

COMPASSIONATE (ADJ.): مهربان
Compassion is a feeling of pity, sympathy, and understanding for someone who is suffering.
Example: Elderly people need time and compassion from their physicians.

DECISIVE (ADJ.): راسخ – قاطعانه
If someone is decisive, they have or show an ability to make quick decisions in a difficult or complicated situation.
Example: He should give way to a younger, more decisive leader.

NEPOTISTIC (ADJ.): فامیل باز - دادن شغل و امتیازات ناسزیده به خویشاوندان))
Tendency to use Nepotism, that is, the unfair use of power in order to get jobs or other benefits for your family or friends.
Example: She was accused of having nepotistic tendencies when she made her nephew an officer of the firm.

GRANDSTANDING (N.): خودنمائی
grandstanding
Grandstanding means behaving in a way that makes people pay attention to you instead of thinking about more important matters. (mainly AM)
Example: Opponents of the measure say it's political grandstanding that could prove devastating to the economy.

PARTISANSHIP (N.): تعصب – جانبداری
Partisanship is support for a person or group without fair consideration of the facts and circumstances.
Example: His politics were based on loyal partisanship.

VACILLATION (N.): دودلی- بی ارادگی – تردید
If you have vacillation between two alternatives or choices, you keeping changing your mind
ExamplePaul Krugman of The New York Times is convinced thatthe president's weakness and vacillation are to blame for the failure of the negotiations.

Correct answer: B-F
@GRE_Borzabadi


What they see in Tanaka is the one candidate capable of DECISIVE leadership in direct contrast to Williamson, whose term in office has been marred by VACILLATION.

ترجمه: چیزی که آنها در تاناکا میبینند یک کاندیدایی است که توان مدیریت قاطعانه را دارد، در تضاد مستقیم با ویلیامسون که درون تصدی سمت او با بی ارادگی خراب شده بود.


توضیح: جای خالی اول را نمیتوانیم کامل کنیم. پس می رویم سراغ جای خالی دوم. کلمه MARRED نشان میدهد که باید یکی از گزینه ها که معنی منفی دارد را بگذاریم. هر سه گزینه به نوعی معنی منفی دارند. دوباره به جمله نگاه می کنیم و کلمه IN DIRECT CONTRAST را مشاهده میکنیم. حالا مجبوریم تک تک سه گزینه جای خالی دوم را بنگریم و ببینیم کدامیک در میان گزینه های جای خالی اول متضاد دارد و به این ترتیب به گزینه های B و F میرسیم .


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

One way to predict the effects of global climate change on an ecosystem is to extrapolate current trend in global change factors into the future. A (i) _____ of this method is that its predictions (ii) _____ actual observation, but the method also makes the questionable assumption that the future will resemble the present.

Blank (i)
A. virtue
B. drawback
C. peculiarity

Blank (ii)
D. dispense with
E. derive from
F. improve upon

@GRE_Borzabadi

VIRTUE (N.): مزیت
The virtue of something is an advantage or benefit that it has, especially in comparison with something else.
Example: It's other great virtue, of course, is its hard-wearing quality.

DRAWBACK (N.): عیب – نقیصه
A drawback is an aspect of something or someone that makes them less acceptable than they would otherwise be.
Example; He felt the apartment's only drawback was that it was too small.

PECULIARITY (N.): صفت مشخصه – ویژگی خاص
A peculiarity is a characteristic or quality which belongs or relates only to one person or thing.
Example: Each nation can have its own peculiarities when it comes to doing business.

DISPENSE WITH (V.): بدون (کسی یا چیزی) کاری را انجام دادن، کنار انداختن
If you dispense with something, you stop using it or get rid of it completely, especially because you no longer need it.
Example: Many households have dispensed with their old-fashioned vinyl turntable.

DERIVE FROM (V.): ناشی شدن، مشتق شدن
If you say that something such as a word or feeling derives or is derived from something else, you mean that it comes from that thing.
Example: The name Anastasia is derived from a Greek word meaning `of the resurrection'.
Example: ...defensive behavior patterns which derive from our subconscious fears.

IMPROVE UPON (V.): چیزی را از قبل بهتر کردن
If you improve on a previous achievement of your own or of someone else, you achieve a better standard or result.
Example: We need to improve on our performance against France.

Correct answer: A – E

@GRE_Borzabadi

One way to predict the effects of global climate change on an ecosystem is to extrapolate current trend in global change factors into the future. A VIRTUE of this method is that its predictions DERIVE FROM actual observation, but the method also makes the questionable assumption that the future will resemble the present.

ترجمه: یک راه برای پیش بینی تاثیرات تغییرات جهانی آب و هوا بر روی محیط زیست استفاده از روند موجود در عوامل تغییرات جهانی آب هوا برای استنتاج این روند در آینده است. یک مزیت این روش آن است که پیش بینی های آن حاصله از مشاهده واقعی است، اما این روش این فرض سوال برنگیز را نیز دارد که آینده مثل حال است.


توضیح: جمله اول توصیف یک روش است. جمله دوم جمله ای مرکب است شامل دو جمله که با BUT به هم ربط داده شده اند. جمله بعد از BUT نقطه ضعفی در این روش را بیان میدارد و بنابراین باید قبل از آن (بخاطر BUT) چیزی متفاوت یعنی مثبت آمده باشد.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Fragments
جمله نماها

یکی از اشتباهاتی گرامری در هنگام انشا، نوشتن جلمه نما است. جمله نماها شکل های زیر را دارند.
1. عبارت اسمی (فاعل طولانی):
Example: The happy boy whom their mother had not seen for a long time.
2. عبارت فعلی:
Example: Visiting the zoo on a hot summer day afternoon.

3. شبه جمله وابسته یا تبعی:
Although he had worked all day long. Example:
شبه جمله های تبعی با نشانگر های زیر شروع میشوند:
Although – even though – if – unless – because – since – as when – before – after- as soon as – until
Where – so that – who – whom – which – that – whether – while – how

Example: How the employees managed to put an end to their task.

@GRE_Borzabadi
هشدار: همیشه جملات خود را به دقت بررسی کنید تا مطمئن شوید شما مرتکب این اشتباه رایج نشوید.

حال به نمونه هایی از این جمله نماها و صورت تصحیح شده آنها که در زیر آمده است توجه کنید.
Sample 1:
Wrong: The primary reason why I agree with the proposition is that students can easily improve their quality of studying. SINCE THEY CAN DEVOUR THEIR FAVORITE LESSONS.
Right: The primary reason why I agree with the proposition is that students can easily improve their quality of studying since they can devour their favorite lessons.

Sample 2:
Wrong: Many book readers do not prefer to exchange their hardcopy with a softcopy one. BECAUSE A PLETHORA OF READERS DESIRE TO LEAF THROUGH A TRADITIONAL BOOK AND DO NOT WANT TO CHANGE THIS PLEASANT EXPERIENCES.
Right: Many book readers do not prefer to exchange their hardcopy with a softcopy one because a plethora of readers desire to leaf through a traditional book and do not want to change this pleasant experiences.

@GRE_Borzabadi

به جمله نما های زیر و شکل صحیح آنها توجه کنید تا شما به دلیل عجله یا نداشتن اطلاعات لازم مرتکب این اشتباه پر تکرار نشوید.

Fragment: Purdue offers many majors in engineering. SUCH AS ELECTRICAL, CHEMICAL, AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING.
Possible Revision: Purdue offers many majors in engineering, such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering.

Fragment: Coach Dietz exemplified this behavior by walking off the field in the middle of a game. LEAVING HER TEAM AT A TIME WHEN WE NEEDED HER.
Possible Revision: Coach Dietz exemplified this behavior by walking off the field in the middle of a game, leaving her team at a time when we needed her.

Fragment: I need to find a new roommate. BECAUSE THE ONE I HAVE NOW ISN'T WORKING OUT TOO WELL.
Possible Revision: I need to find a new roommate because the one I have now isn't working out too well.

Fragment: The current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands. WHICH IS WHY WE BELIEVE THE PROPOSED AMENDMENTS SHOULD BE PASSED.
Possible Revision: Because the current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands, we believe the proposed amendments should be passed.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

He was never (i) ______: he was nothing if not (ii) ______, so he forbore for the present to declare his passion.

Blank (i)
A. chivalrous
B. impetuous
C. thoughtful

Blank (ii)
D. boorish
E. circumspect
F. spontaneous

@GRE_Borzabadi

CHIVALROUS (ADJ.): جوانمرد، مودب
A chivalrous man is polite, kind, and unselfish, especially towards women.
Example: He was too chivalrous to ask the ladies to pay their share.

IMPETUOUS (ADJ.): عجولانه عجول -
If you describe someone as impetuous, you mean that they are likely to act quickly and suddenly without thinking or being careful.
Example: He tended to react in a heated and impetuous way.

THOUGHTFUL (ADJ.): فکور، متفکر، اندیشگر
If you describe someone as thoughtful, you approve of them because they remember what other people want, need, or feel, and try not to upset them.
Example: I still remember the silent, thoughtful man who decided to sacrifice his life for his cause.

BOORISH (ADJ.): بی ادب – بی نزاکت
Boorish behavior is rough, uneducated, and rude.
Example: What I did was not just stupid or boorish; my actions were just plain wrong.

CIRCUMSPECT (ADJ.): محتاط – با تدبیر- دوراندیش
If you are circumspect, you are cautious in what you do and say and do not take risks. (FORMAL)
Example: The banks should have been more circumspect in their dealings.

SPONTANEOUS (ADJ.): فی البدیهه – بلامقدمقه
Spontaneous acts are not planned or arranged, but are done because someone suddenly wants to do them.
Example: Diana's house was crowded with happy people whose spontaneous outbursts of song were accompanied by lively music.


Correct answer: B – E


@GRE_Borzabadi


He was never IMPETUOUS : he was nothing if not CIRCUMSPECT, so he forbore for the present to declare his passion.

ترجمه: او هرگز عجول نبود:فوق العاده دوراندیش بود، بنابراین از ابراز احساس خود در همان لحظه خودداری کرد.


توضیح: اول باید بدانیم که" "nothing if not قبل از هر صفتی به معنی "بسیار" میباشد. حالا سوال را نمیتوانیم جواب بدهیم مگر قسمت آخر را بخوانیم که میگوید این فرد احساسش را فوری در لحظه حال بیان نمیکرد. این بخش تعریف کلمه circumspect یا همان دوراندیش است. از اینجا ما به کلمه درست برای جای خالی اول میرسیم. آدم دوراندیش عجول نیست.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Fused Sentences
جمله های به هم تافته
جمله های به تافته جمله هایی غلط هستند که وقتی ایجاد میشوند که شما بین دو یا تعداد بیشتری جمله نقطه نمیگذارید و یا گاه بجای نقطه کاما میگذارید
مثال:
It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
OR
It was close to fall, the trees were losing their leaves.
@GRE_Borzabadi
از این نوع اشتباه به کرارات در انشا ها دیده می شود و لذا به هنگام بازنگری کارتان مراقب باشید از این دست خطا مرتکب نشوید. برای روشن تر شدن مطلب به نمونه های زیر نیز دقت کنید.

Wrong: The boys were playing with their trucks in the mud I watched them from the window in my bedroom.
Right: The boys were playing with their trucks in the mud. I watched them from the window in my bedroom.


Wrong: Some of the workers would leave their sacks at the store to be picked up the following morning, a few had to take them home for repairs.
Right: Some of the workers would leave their sacks at the store to be picked up the following morning. A few had to take them home for repairs.
@GRE_Borzabadi
تمرین: کدامیک از جمله های زیر جمله در هم تافته است.

1. Sylvia’s mother still lives in New Orleans Sylvia moved to Chicago.
2. The clouds are gray and dark it looks as though it could snow.
3. We are going to the festival this weekend last year we missed the medieval dancers.
4. My printer is out of ink. It costs too much to replace the cartridge.
5. English has always been my worst subject I could never get along with the picky teachers.
6. The employees are disgruntled managers are wondering what to do.
7. Because Mandy read one book by Hemingway, she wants to become a novelist all she does is sit and stare out the window daydreaming.
8. Ghosts don’t exist except in your imagination is something moving over there?
9. I came back to school to learn accounting. It was the best decision I ever made.
10. Tom’s Harley was stolen from his garage he’s in shock he can hardly believe what happened!

جواب: جمله های 1- 2 – 3 – 5- 6 – 7 – 8 – 10 جمله های در هم تافته هستند که باید درست شوند.

در درس بعدی برخی روش ههای تصحیح این نوع جملات معرفی میشوند. GRE_Borzabadi@
GRE_Borzabadi

Ways to Correct Fused Sentences
راههای تصحیح جمله های بهم تافته

@GRE_Borzabadi
پنج راه پیشنهادی برای تصحیح این جمله ها عبارتند از:


1. قرار دان نقطه:
Wrong: It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
Right: It was close to fall. The trees were losing their leaves.


2. قرار دادن semicolon (;)
Wrong: It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
Right: It was close to fall; the trees were losing their leaves.


3. کاما و بدنبال آن یکی ازحروف ربط هفت گانه (but –and – and – so – or – for –yet – nor)
Wrong: It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
Right: It was close to fall, so the trees were beginning to lose their leaves.


و غیره) therefore – thus – besides استفاده از حروف ربط قیدی ( مانند .4
Wrong: It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
Right: It was close to fall; consequently, the trees were losing their leaves.



5. استفاده از شبه جمله ها ( Adverb Clauses – Relative Clauses – Noun Clauses)
Wrong: It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.
Right: Because it was close to fall, the trees were losing their leaves.



هشدار: به دلیل ویژگی خاص زبان فارسی که امکان فراوانی در بازی با کلمات در جمله نویسی به ما میدهد باور کنید بسیاری از دوستان از این جمله های به تافته زیاد می نویسید. بیشترمراقب باشید.

@GRE_Borzabadi



تمرین: پاراگراف زیر یک جمله بهم تافته و البته غلط است است. این پاراگراف را با استفاده از روش های فوق تصحیح کنید.

The accomplishment I’m most proud of is finishing high school and going straight to college college is very important to my future because I want to be able to help my husband provide for our family without college it won’t be possible finishing college is my biggest goal I want to finish college with honors I want to be well prepared for the future.



جواب پیشنهادی:

The accomplishment I’m most proud of is finishing high school and going straight to college. College is very important to my future because I want to be able to help my husband provide for our family; without college it won’t be possible. Finishing college is my biggest goal. I want to finish college with honors and be well prepared for the future.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Now that photographic prints have become a popular field for collecting, auctions are becoming more (i) ______. It is not just the entry of new collectors into the field that is causing this intensification. Established collectors' interests are also becoming more (ii) ______. Those who once concentrated on the work of either the nineteenth-century pioneers or the twentieth-century modernists arc now keen to have (iii) ______ collections.

Blank (i)
A. competitive
B. tedious
C. exclusive

Blank (ii)
D. fickle
E. wide-ranging
F. antiquarian

Blank (iii)
G. comprehensive
H. legitimate
I. impressive

@GRE-Borzabadi

COMPETITIVE (ADJ.): رقابتی
Competitive is used to describe situations or activities in which people or firms compete with each other.
Example: Only by keeping down costs will America maintain its competitive advantage over other countries.

TEDIOUS (ADJ.): خسته کننده – کسالت آور
If you describe something such as a job, task, or situation as tedious, you mean it is boring and rather frustrating.
Example: Such lists are long and tedious to read.

EXCLUSIVE (ADJ.): انحصاری
Something that is exclusive is used or owned by only one person or group, and not shared with anyone else.
Example: Many of their cheeses are exclusive to our stores in Britain.

FICKLE (ADJ.): بی ثبات – ناپایدار – دمدمی
If you say that something is fickle, you mean that it often changes and is unreliable.
Example: Orta's weather can be fickle.

WIDE-RANGING (ADJ.): جامع – گسترده
If you describe something as wide-ranging, you mean it deals with or affects a great variety of different things.
Example: Wide-ranging studies of ocean-borne radioactivity were initiated by the Japanese.

ANTIQUARIAN (ADJ.): مربوط به عتیقه جات و آثار باستانی
Antiquarian means concerned with old and rare objects.
Example: This store sells antiquarian and second-hand books.

COMPREHENSIVE (ADJ.): جامع – گسترده
Something that is comprehensive includes everything that is needed or relevant.
Example: The Rough Guide to Nepal is a comprehensive guide to the region.

LEGITIMATE (ADJ.): مشروع – قانونی
Something that is legitimate is acceptable according to the law.
Example: The French government has condemned the coup in Haiti and has demanded the restoration of the legitimate government.

IMPRESSIVE (ADJ.): قابل ملاحظه – تاثیر گذار
Something that is impressive impresses you, for example because it is great in size or degree, or is done with a great deal of skill.
Example: The film's special effects are particularly impressive.



Correct answer: A _ E _ G


@GRE-Borzabadi

Now that photographic prints have become a popular field for collecting, auctions are becoming more COMPETITIVE. It is not just the entry of new collectors into the field that is causing this intensification. Established collectors' interests are also becoming more WIDE-RANGING. Those who once concentrated on the work of either the nineteenth-century pioneers or the twentieth-century modernists arc now keen to have COMPREHENSIVE collections.

ترجمه: حال که عکس هم زمینه ای محبوب در کلکسیون داری شده است، مزایده ها دارند رقابتی تر می شوند. تنها ورود کلکسیونرهای جدید به این حوزه باعث تشدید رقابت نشده است. سلائق کلکسیونرهای قدیمی جاافتاده هم در حال گسترده تر شدن است. آنان که زمانی تمرکزشان یا بر پیشتازان قرن نوزدهم یا مدرنیست های قرن نوزدهم بود حالا مایلند که مجموعه های جامع تری داشته باشند.

توضیح: در جمله اول محبوب شدن (popular) و در جمله دوم " ورود کلکسیونرهای جدید" و نیز کلمه "تشدید شدن (intensification) حاکی از آن است که گزینه A درست است یعنی مزایده ها شلوغتر و بنابراین رقابت شدیدتر می شود. کلمه "also" در جمله بعدی نشان میدهد که روند قبلی یعنی روند رقابتی باید افزوده شود و این وقتی درست است که علائق کلکسیونرها قدیمی و با سابقه هم متنوع و آنها نیز وارد این حیطه شوند که در نتیجه گزینه E را پیش پای ما میگذارد. جمله آخر هم نشان میدهد کلکسیونرها از تمرکز خود دست کشیده اند که این امر دو انتخاب قبلی را تائید و گزینه G را برای جای خالی سوم مناسب میگرداند یعنی آنها متمرکز بر دو مورد ذکر شده دیگر نیستند و کلکسیون هایشان کامل تر یا بعبارتی جامع تر گردیده است.


@GRE-Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

One sometimes hears that Marco Polo introduced pasta to the Western world, having encountered it in China. This durable myth, which (i) _____ that nothing should have been known of pasta in Italy until 1295, when Marco Polo returned from the Far East, can easily be (ii) _____ by pointing out that there are Italian references to pasta that (iii) _____.

Blank (ii)
A requires
B. demonstrates
C. symbolizes

Blank (ii)
D. augmented
E. debunked
F. traced

Blank (iii)
G. praise its virtues
H. can be authenticated
I. predate that event

@GRE_Borzabadi

REQUIRE (V.): ایجاب کردن - ملزم کردن – لازم داشتن
If you require something or if something is required, you need it or it is necessary. (FORMAL)
Example: This isn't the kind of crisis that requires us to drop everything else.

DEMONSTRATE (V.): آشکار کردن - نشان دادن
To demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people.
Example: The study also demonstrated a direct link between obesity and mortality.

SYMBOLIZE (V.): نشانه بودن – نشانگر بودن
If one thing symbolizes another, it is used or regarded as a symbol of it.
The fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of the Cold War between East and West.

AUGMENT (V.): افزایش دادن
To augment something means to make it larger, stronger, or more effective by adding something to it. (FORMAL)
Example: While searching for a way to augment the family income, she began making dolls.

DEBUNK (V.): رد کردن - برملا کردن نادرستی ( عقیده – فکر – تئوری و غیره)
If you debunk a widely held belief, you show that it is false. If you debunk something that is widely admired, you show that it is not as good as people think it is.
Historian Michael Beschloss debunks a few myths.

TRACE (V.): ردیابی کردن – پی جویی کردن – دنبال کردن
If you trace the origin or development of something, you find out or describe how it started or developed.
Example: The exhibition traces the history of graphic design in America from the 19th century to the present.

PRAISE (V.): ستایش کردن
If you praise someone or something, you express approval for their achievements or qualities.
Example: He praised the excellent work of the UN weapons inspectors.

AUTHENTICATE (V.): صحت و سقم چیزی را تایئد و تصدیق کردن
If you authenticate something, you state officially that it is genuine after examining it.
He says he'll have no problem authenticating the stamp.

PREDATE (V.): روی دادن قبل از
If you say that one thing predated another, you mean that the first thing happened or existed some time before the second thing.
Example: His troubles predated the recession.




Correct answer: A – E – I

@GRE_Borzabadi


One sometimes hears that Marco Polo introduced pasta to the Western world, having encountered it in China. This durable myth, which REQUIRES that nothing should have been known of pasta in Italy until 1295, when Marco Polo returned from the Far East, can easily be DEBBUNKED by pointing out that there are Italian references to pasta that PREDATE THE EVENT.


ترجمه: اغلب میشنویم که مارکو پولو بعد از بازگشت ازچین پاستا را به دنیای غرب معرفی کرد. این افسانه پردوام که ایجاب میکند که بگویم در ایتالیا اطلاعی از پاستا تا سال 1295 یعنی زمانی که مارکوپولو از خاور دور برگشت موجود نبود براحتی قابل رد کردن است اگر خاطرنشان کنیم که اشاراتی به پاستا در ایتالیا شده است که این اشارات قبل از قصه مارکوپولو بوده است.


توضیح: کلید حل این سوال کلمه افسانه "myth" در جمله دوم است که نشان میدهد که داستان معرفی پاستا توسط مارکوپولو غلط است. اگر این قصه را بپذیرم لازم ( requires) است که بگوییم ایتالیایی ها تا قبل از سفر ملرکوپولو چیزی از پاستا نمیدانسته اند که این قصه با توجه به اشاراتی که به پاستا قبل از سفر مارکو پولو شده است ( predate the event) به راحتی قابل رد است (debunked ).


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

درسوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.

Select TWO answer choices.

Edited collections of scholarly essays generally tend to be somewhat uneven: they suffer from the ______ subject matter of the various essays, the lack of an overarching and consistent thesis, and the variable quantity of the contributions,
A. intriguing
B. heterogeneous
C. comprehensive
D. disparate
E. mediocre
F. engaging

@GRE_Borzabadi

INTRIGUING (ADJ.): جذاب – خیره کننده
If you describe something as intriguing, you mean that it is interesting or strange.
Example: This intriguing book is both thoughtful and informative.

HETEROGENEOUS (ADJ.): ناهمگون
A heterogeneous group consists of many different types of things or people. (FORMAL)
Example: The twins are heterogeneous in appearance and look nothing alike.

COMPREHENSIVE (ADJ.): جامع – گسترده
Something that is comprehensive includes everything that is needed or relevant.
Example: The Rough Guide to Nepal is a comprehensive guide to the region.

DISPARATE (ADJ.): ناهمخوان - گوناگون
Example: The three sisters had three disparate personalities

MEDIOCRE (ADJ.): متوسط – خیلی معمولی در حد
If you describe something as mediocre, you mean that it is of average quality but you think it should be better.
Example: His school record was mediocre.

ENGAGING (ADJ.): جذاب – خیرکننده
An engaging person or thing is pleasant, interesting, and entertaining.
Example: This novel is one of her most engaging and least known novels.



@GRE_Borzabadi



Edited collections of scholarly essays generally tend to be somewhat uneven: they suffer from the HETEROGENOUS/DISPARATE subject matter of the various essays, the lack of an overarching and consistent thesis, and the variable quantity of the contributions.

ترجمه: مجموعه های ویرایش شده مقالات علمی، معمولا تا حدی نامتوازن هستند: آنها مشکل موضوعات ناهمگون مقالات مختلف،فقدان یک اندیشه ای یکجور و محوری، و میزان ناهمسان سهمی که ادا کرده اند را دارند.



توضیح: کلمات "مجموعه ها" (collections ) و "نامتوازن" (uneven) که قبل از جای خالی آمده اند و "فقدان یک اندیشه یکجور و محوری" (lack of an overarching and consistent thesis ) و" سهم نامتوازن آنها" (variable quantity of the contributions.) که بعد از جای خالی آمده اند، همگی حکایت از آن دارند که صفت قبل از "موضوع" (subject matter) باید همان ناهمگون باشد تا با کلمات دیگری که ذکر شد همخوانی وجود داشته باشد.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.


Although the insistence on balancing spending against tax revenues has contributed to the economy’s stagnation, unfortunately, the government does not seem likely to _______ this rigid policy.
A. initiate
B. persist in
C. publicize
D. repudiate
E. continue
F. recant


@GRE_ Borzabadi

INITIATE (V.): راه انداختن– شروع کردن
If you initiate something, you start it or cause it to happen.
Example: They wanted to initiate a discussion on economics.

PERSIST IN (V.): پافشاری کردن در
If you persist in doing something, you continue to do it, even though it is difficult or other people are against it.
Example: He urged all the countries in the region to persist in making its efforts to bring about peace.

PUBLICIZE (V.): شناساندن – تبلیغ کرده
If you publicize a fact or event, you make it widely known to the public.
Example: The author appeared on television to publicize her latest book.

REPUDIATE (V.): رد کردن – انکار کردن
If you repudiate something or someone, you show that you strongly disagree with them and do not want to be connected with them in any way. (WRITTEN or FORMAL)
Leaders urged people to turn out in large numbers to repudiate the violence.

CONTINUE (V.): ادامه دادن
If something continues or if you continue it, it starts again after a break or interruption.
Example: He denies 18 charges. The trial continues today.
Example: Once, he did dive for cover but he soon reappeared and continued his activities.

RECANT (V.): زیر حرف یا عقیده خود زدن – پس گرفتن – انکار کردن
If you recant, you say publicly that you no longer hold a set of beliefs that you had in the past. (FORMAL)
Example: If my best friend does not recant the accusation she made about me, then she and I will no longer be friends.


Correct answer: D – F




@GRE_ Borzabadi


Although the insistence on balancing spending against tax revenues has contributed to the economy’s stagnation, unfortunately, the government does not seem likely to REPUDIATE/RECANT this rigid policy.

ترجمه: علیرغم آنکه اصرار دولت در متوازن کردن مخارج با درآمدهای مالیاتی بخ رکود اقتصاد دامن زده است، متتاسفانه ینظر نمی رسد که دولت بخواهد این سیاست سفت و سخت را کنار بگذارد.


توضیح: در این جمله به دلیل کلمه (Although) بین دو بخش جمله باید اختلاف باشد. پس قسمت دوم باید انکار قسمت اول باشد. در قسمت اول می گوید سیاست دولت باعث رکود شده است، پس انتظار داریم دولت این سیاست را کنار بگذارد ولی کلمه "متاسفانه" (unfortunately) در بخش دوم نشان میدهد که دولت نمیخواهد دست از این سیایت بکشد و بنابر این باید دو گزینه D-F را انتخاب کیم تا تضاد بین دو بخش برقرار شود و معنایی منطقی بدست آید.


@GRE_ Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Subject-Verb Agreement
تطابق فعل با فاعل


فعل و فاعل باید از نظر جمع و مفرد بودن با هم هماهنگ باشند. فاعل اگر مفرد باشد فعل هم باید مفرد و اگر فاعل جمع باشد فعل هم باید جمع باشد.
مثال:
1- Over the deck of the ship, the HELICOPTER SETTLES into a landing pattern.
2. Over the deck of the ship, the HELICOPTERS SETTLE into a landing pattern.
@GRE_Borzabadi

برای آنکه در زمینه تطابق فعل ب افاعل اشتباه نکنید به نکات زیر دقت کنید.

نکته 1: عبارات و شبه جمله هایی که بین فاعل و فعل می آیند رابطه فعل و فاعل را تغییر نمیدهند.
1. Henry, not Gracie or George, IS prepared for the worst.
2. The book that is lying next to the two ashtrays IS hardly ever touched.



نکته 2: اسامی علوم و بیماریهایی که به S ختم می شوند، مفرد محسوب می گردنند. ( linguistics – economics –measles – rabies – physics -ethics- mathematics - - mumps )

1. Physics IS a hard subject to study.

2. Rabies IS a disease that still kills people.



نکته 3. توجه کنید که the number of فعل مفرد و a number of فعل جمع میگیرد.
1. The number of the people in the room IS 20.
2. A number of important issues ARE going to be discussed.


نکته 4. چنانچه بین و فاعل و فعل عبارات زیر باشند این عبارات رابطه فعل و فاعل را تغییر نمی دهند.
as well as – in addition to – accompanied by – along with – together with
1. The President, together with his cabinet members, IS not visiting a country in the Middle East.
2. The student, as well as his parents, WAS asked to see the principal.


نکته 5. کلمات و عبارات مربوط به زمان، پول یا مسافت حتی اگر حالت جمع باشند، فعل مفرد میگیرند.
1. Even two hundred years IS not a long time to live.
2. Ten million dollars IS the amount of money he was in need of.
3. Seven thousand kilometers IS not a long distance to travel nowadays.


نکته 6. ضمایر نامعینی نکه در زیر آمده اند فعل مفرد میگیرند.
anybody-anyone-each-either-everybody-everyone-everything-neither-nobody-no one-one-somebody-someone- something

1. Each of the dresses IS stylish.
2. Either of the two options IS good for me.

@GRE_Borzabadi


تمرین 1: در جملات زیر، فعل درست را انتخاب کنید.

1. Ethics (is/are) the study of moral duties, principles, and values.
2. The first bridge to be built with electric lights (was/were) the Brooklyn Bridge.
3. George Gershwin, together with his brother Ira, (was/were) the creator of the first musical comedy to win a Pulitzer Prize.
4. In a chess game, the player with the white pieces always (moves/move) first.
5. Earth and Pluto (is/are) the only two planets believed to have a single moon.
6. A number of special conditions (is/are) necessary for the formation of a geyser.
7. Each of the Ice Ages (was/were) more than a million years long.
8. The battery, along with the alternator and starter, (makes/make) up the electrical system of a car.
9. Teeth (is/are) covered with a hard substance called enamel.
10. The more-or-less rhythmic succession of economic booms and busts (is/are) referred to as the business cycle.




تمرین 2: پاراگراف زیر را ویرایش کنید.

Cindy and Marjorie are the best of friends most of the time. Everyone in our class, even the jocks and the nerds, know they are inseparable. So we are all surprised to see them feuding over someone like Bill, who is irresponsible and lazy. He, as well as his friends, are the worst kind of companion for Marjorie, and he’s already broken Cindy’s heart once before. Why do either one of them care about him? All their friends in the dorm advises them to stay away from him, but neither of them listen. It must be that devilish grin and “cool” demeanor that makes him so irresistible. At any rate, they are no longer talking to each other, and anyone without blinders on know a beautiful friendship is being threatened because of a low-life jerk.


Answer key:
تمرین 1:
1. is 2. was 3. was 4. moves 5. are
6. are 7. was 8. makes 9. are 10. is
GRE_Borzabadi

تمرین 2:
Cindy and Marjorie are the best of friends most of the time. Everyone in our class, even the jocks and the nerds, KNOWS they are inseparable. So we are all surprised to see them feuding over someone like Bill, who is irresponsible and lazy. He, as well as his friends, IS the worst kind of companion for Marjorie, and he’s already broken Cindy’s heart once before. Why DOES either one of them care about him? All their friends in the dorm ADVISE them to stay away from him, but neither of them LISTENS. It must be that devilish grin and “cool” demeanor that MAKE him so irresistible. At any rate, they are no longer talking to each other, and anyone without blinders on KNOWS a beautiful friendship is being threatened because of a low-life jerk.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.

William Perkins, his _____ speaking style notwithstanding, has long been seen as the moderate face of his political party.
A. fiery
B. genteel
C. bumbling
D. unremarkable
E. affable
F. impassioned


GRE_Borzabadi

FIERY (ADJ.): و آتشین پر شور
If you describe someone as fiery, you mean that they express very strong emotions, especially anger, in their behavior or speech. (WRITTEN)
Example: She was a fiery, brilliant and unyielding intellectual and politician.

GENTEEL (ADJ.): مودب و با کلاس
A genteel person is respectable and well-mannered, and comes or seems to come from a high social class.
Example: It was a place to which genteel families came in search of health and quiet.


BUMBLING (ADJ.): دست و پا چولوفتی
If you describe a person or their behavior as bumbling, you mean that they behave in a confused, disorganized way, making mistakes and usually not achieving anything.
Example: As he turned towards the bumbling idiots in his office, he clenched his teeth, trying to keep the volume of his voice under control.

UNREMARKABLE (ADJ.): معمولی – پیش پاافتاده
If you describe someone or something as unremarkable, you mean that they are very ordinary, without many exciting, original, or attractive qualities.
Example: This great scientist was born in a rather unremarkable town in North Wales.

AFFABLE (ADJ.): مهربان و دوست دانشتنی
Someone who is affable is pleasant and friendly.
Example: Mr. Brooke is an extremely affable and approachable man.

IMPASSIONED (ADJ.): و داغ پر شور
An impassioned speech or piece of writing is one in which someone expresses their strong feelings about an issue in a forceful way. (JOURNALISM or WRITTEN)
Example: He made an impassioned appeal for peace.



Correct answer: A –F


William Perkins, his speaking FIERY/IMPASSIONED style notwithstanding, has long been seen as the moderate face of his political party.



GRE_Borzabadi


ترجمه: علیرغم سبک پورشور و آتشین سخنر انیهایش، ویلیام پرکینز همواره به عنوان یک چهره میانه روی حزب سیاسی اش شناخته می شود.


توضیح: کلید حل این مسئله بخشی است که فاعل و فعل این جمله را جدا کرده است یعنی یخش his _____ speaking style notwithstanding" ". در اینجا کلمه "علیرغم (notwithstanding) نشان میدهد که هرآنچه باید در جای خالی بیاید باید با مفهوم بقیه جمله متضاد باشد. بقیه جمله میگوید که او به عنوان آدمی میانه رو و معتدل شناخته می شود که بهترین متضاد آن در بین گزینه ها AوF می باشد.



GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The medical professor's thesis―hardly new, but rarely ______ by a faculty members of his distinction―is that patients arc more than the sum of their symptoms and systems.
A. discounted
B. ignored
C. subverted
D. underestimated
E. espoused

@GRE_Borzabadi

DISCOUNT (V.): رد کردن
Example: The police have now discounted the possibility of murder in the death of an old man found floating in the harbor over the weekend.
IGNORE (V.): نادیده گرفتن
If you ignore someone or something, you pay no attention to them.
Example: For two decades her theatrical talents were ignored by the film industry.

SUBVERT (V.): تضعیف کردن
To subvert something means to destroy its power and influence. (FORMAL)
Example: In the movie, the rebels sought to subvert the tribunal’s power and replace the body with a democratic government.

UNDERESTIMATE (V.): دستکم گرفتن – کم برآورد کردن
If you underestimate something, you do not realize how large or great it is or will be.
Example: Never underestimate what you can learn from a group of like-minded people.

ESPOUSE (V.): حمایت کردن
If you espouse a particular policy, cause, or belief, you become very interested in it and give your support to it. (FORMAL)
Example: She ran away with him to Mexico and espoused the revolutionary cause.

Correct answer: E
@GRE_Borzabadi

The medical professor's thesis―hardly new, but rarely ESPOUSED by faculty members of his distinction―is that patients arc more than the sum of their symptoms and systems.

ترجمه: ادعای آن استا د پزشکی- اگرچه اصلا جدید نیست ولی با این حال توسط اساتید همترازش حمایت هم نمی شود_ این است که بیمارها چیزی فرای جمع علائم بیماری واندام های بدنی خود هستند.



توضیح: باید توجه داشت که بر اساس دانش عمومی معمولا چیزی مورد حمایت قرار نمی گیرد که جدید باشد چون انسان ها بطور کلی نسبت به عقاید جدید اول مقاومت نشان می دهند. حرف این استاد پزشکی جدید نبود و لی دلیل انتخاب فعل "حمایت کردن" کلمه "اما" ( BUT ) در متن است که نشان مبدهد با اینکه جدید نبود و باید حمایت می شد "اما" مورد حمایت واقع نشد.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Subject-Verb Agreement (Part 2)
تطابق فعل با فاعل )بخش 2)

@GRE_Borzabadi

نکته 1: بدیهی است همانطور که قبلا گفته شد چنانچه دو یا تعداد بیشتر فاعل مفرد با and به مرتبط شده باشند این مجموعه فاعلی، جمع محسوب می شود.
Fanny and Mae are enjoying their ice cream cones.

نکته 2: every- each- either- neither چنانچه قبل از اسم بکار روند فعل مفرد می گیرند.

Every man and woman SEEMS happy

Neither of your suggestions LOOKS like something logical.



نکته 3: اگر دو فاعل با هر یک از جفت های زیر بکار روند، فعل با فاعل دوم یعنی با فاعلی که بعد از کلمه دوم در جفت های زیر آمده است مطابقت می کند.

Neither —— nor / either —— or / not only —— but also


Neither the conductor nor the musicians KNOW how to read music.
Neither the musicians nor the conductor KNOWS how to read music.

Either Janet or her parents ARE delivering the gifts to the hospital.
Either her parents or Janet IS delivering the gifts to the hospital.

Not only the senators but also the governor IS protesting the new federal guidelines.
Not only the governor but also the senators ARE protesting the new federal guideline.



@GRE_Borzabadi


تمرین: پاراگراف زیر را در ارتباط با تطابق فعل با فاعل در صورت لزوم ویرایش کنید.

Either Antonia Gaddis’ seven children or her husband are inheriting all the land she purchased when she retired from teaching. Each soul and body in Malmar are rooting for the kids, not because we don’t like Mr. Gaddis but because we want to watch the kids fight over the land for the next several years. There’s not much else to do in our small town. The twins—Harry and Hector (the one who twitches when he gets angry)—controls the others most of the time, but we are hoping a big land fight will break their dominance and we’ll have a real western on our hands. Several of our crowd thinks the kids might just let Mr. Gaddis have the land, but anyone with any brains know that when money is at stake even well-raised children can become monsters. Every man, woman, and child in Malmar look forward to being entertained by the Gaddis family drama. We wish Antonia were alive to enjoy it with us!






Corrected Paragraph

Either Antonia Gaddis’ seven children or her husband IS inheriting all the land she purchased when she retired from teaching. Each soul and body in Malmar IS rooting for the kids, not because we don’t like Mr. Gaddis but because we want to watch the kids fight over the land for the next several years. There’s not much else to do in our small town. The twins—Harry and Hector (the one who twitches when he gets angry)—CONTROL the others most of the time, but we are hoping a big land fight will break their dominance and we’ll have a real western on our hands. Several of our crowd THINK the kids might just let Mr. Gaddis have the land, but anyone with any brains KNOWS that when money is at stake even well-raised children can become monsters. Every man, woman, and child in Malmar LOOKS forward to being entertained by the Gaddis family drama. We wish Antonia were alive to enjoy it with us!




@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification, _______ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them.
A. disproved
B. belied
C. conflated
D. divulged
E. relaxed

@GRE_Borzabadi

DISPROVE (V.): رد کردن – ابطال کردن
To disprove an idea, belief, or theory means to show that it is not true.
Example: The statistics to prove or disprove his hypothesis will take years to collect.

BELIE (V.): متناقض بودن با
If one thing belies another, it hides the true situation and so creates a false idea or image of someone or something.
Example: His trembling hands belied his calm voice.

CONFLATE (V.): تلفیق کردن
If you conflate two or more descriptions or ideas, or if they conflate, you combine them in order to produce a single one. (FORMAL)
Example: Unfortunately the public conflated fiction with reality and made her into a saint.

DIVULGE (V.): رو کردن – فاش کردن
If you divulge a piece of secret or private information, you tell it to someone. (FORMAL)
Example: Officials refuse to divulge details of the negotiations.

RELAX (V.): کاستن – کم کردن – ملایم کردن
If you relax a rule or your control over something, or if it relaxes, it becomes less firm or strong.
Example: Some analysts believe that the government soon will begin relaxing economic controls.


Correct answer: B


@GRE_Borzabadi





The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted
classification, BELIED the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them.


ترجمه: با این باور که تمایزات غلطی که سیستم تقسیم بندی پذیرفته شده بین نمونه ها قائل می شود باترتیب همبستگی ضروری بین آنها در تضاد است، دانشمند فسیل شناس نمونه ها را مورد بررسی دوباره قرار داد.




توضیح: در رسیدن به جواب باید به این نکات توجه کرد 1. وقتی کاری را دوباره بررسی میکنیم که مشکلی وجود داشته باشد، 2. این تقسیم بندی تمایز های غلط بین نمونه های قائل میشود و 3. این نمونه همه با هم پیوستگی مهمی دارند. بنابراین گزینه B است چون بین عبارات 2 و 3 تضاد وجود دارد یعنی بین تمایزی که سیستم تقسیم بندی قائل می شود و هبستگی مهمی که بین آنها وجو دارد، تضاد موجود است.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Though humanitarian emergencies are frequent features of television news, such exposure seldom ______ the public, which rather seems resigned to a sense of impotency.
A. paralyzes
B. demoralizes
C. assuages
D. galvanizes
E. exasperates

@GRE_Borzabadi

PARALYZE (V.): فلج کردن – از کار انداختن
If a person, place, or organization is paralyzed by something, they become unable to act or function properly.
Example: The strike has virtually paralyzed the island.

DEMORALIZE (V.): بی روحیه کردن – تضعیف روحیه کردن
If something demoralizes someone, it makes them lose so much confidence in what they are doing that they want to give up.
Example: Clearly, one of the objectives is to demoralize the enemy troops in any way they can.

ASSUAGE (V.): تسکین دادن – کم کردن (درد– نگرانی –ترس و غیره)
If you assuage an unpleasant feeling that someone has, you make them feel it less strongly. (LITERARY)
Example: To assuage his wife's sadness, he took her on a tour of Europe.

GALVANIZE (V.): تحریک کردن – به هیجان آوردن
To galvanize someone means to cause them to take action, for example by making them feel very excited, afraid, or angry.
Example: They have been galvanized into collective action militarily, politically and economically.

EXASPERATE (V.): ناراحت کردن – دلخور کردن
If someone or something exasperates you, they annoy you and make you feel frustrated or upset.
Example: Since I am a hard worker, I get exasperated when I am placed on a team with lazy people.


Correct answer: D


@GRE_Borzabadi


Though humanitarian emergencies are frequent features of television news, such exposure seldom GALVANIZES the public, which rather seems resigned to a sense of impotency.


ترجمه: اگرچه وضعیت های فوق العاده کمک به انسانها در شرایط بحران از صحنه هایی مداوم تکرار شونده در اخبار تلویزیونی است، اما چنین صحنحه هایی مردم را که به نظر میرسد به به حس ناتوانی در انجام کاری در این خصوص رضا داده اند برای کمک به ندرت به هیجان میاورد.




توضیح: در این جمله از یک ظرف تضاد وجود دارد. اخبار تلویزیون مدام صحنه هایی از شرایط بد انسانها نشان میدهد و بنابریان انتظار میرود که افرادی که این صحنه ها را می بینند تحریک شوند که کاری کنند ولی آنها به ندرت تحت تاثیر قرار میگیرند و دلیلش این است که به این باور رسیده اند که از انجام هر کاری در این خصوص ناتوان هستند.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Since fibromyalgia's symptoms can be (i) _____ and can (ii) _____ other disorder, and its diagnosis depends largely on patients' descriptions rather than blood tests or biopsies, fibromyalgia's cause and treatment have been the subject of much debate.

Blank (i)
A. wide-ranging
B. distinctive
C. debilitating

Blank (i)
D. mimic
E. illuminate
F. preclude

@GRE_ Borzabadi


WIDE-RANGING (ADJ.): گسترده – جامع
If you describe something as wide-ranging, you mean it deals with or affects a great variety of different things.
Example: The aims of the redesign are wide-ranging but simple.

DISTINCTIVE (ADJ.): متمایز – شاخص
Something that is distinctive has a special quality or feature which makes it easily recognizable and different from other things of the same type.
Example: Pandas are robust, bear-like animals with a distinctive black and white coat.

DEBILITATٍ (V.): ضعیف کردن – ناتوان کردن
If you are debilitated by something such as an illness, it causes your body or mind to become gradually weaker. (FORMAL)
Example: Stewart took over yesterday when Russell was debilitated by a stomach virus.

MIMIC (V.): تقلیدن کردن – همسان عمل کردن
If someone or something mimics another person or thing, they try to be like them.
Example: Don't try to mimic anybody. You have to be yourself if you are going to do your best.

ILLUMINATE (V.): توضیح دادن – روشن کردن
If you illuminate something that is unclear or difficult to understand, you make it clearer by explaining it carefully or giving information about it. (FORMAL)
Example: Instead of formulas and charts, the two instructors use games and drawings to illuminate their subject.

PRECLUDE (V.): مانع شدن – جلوگیری کردن
If something precludes an event or action, it prevents the event or action from happening. (FORMAL)
Example: At 84, John feels his age precludes too much travel.


@GRE_ Borzabadi



Since fibromyalgia's symptoms can be WIDE-RANGING and can MIMIC other disorder, and its diagnosis depends largely on patients' descriptions rather than blood tests or biopsies, fibromyalgia's cause and treatment have been the subject of much debate.

ترجمه: چون علائم بیماری فیبرومیالژا می تواند متنوع باشد و این بیماری میتواند بشکل بیماری های دیگر خود را نشان بدهد و تشخیص آن عمدتا بر اساس شرح حال خود مریض است تا بر اساس نمونه برداریها و آزمایش خون، علت و درمان این بیماری موضوع مناقشه بسیار بوده است.


توضیح: رابطه علت و معلولی در این سوال باید مورد دقت قرار گیرد. از خود باید بپرسیم چراعلت و درمان این بیماری موضوع مناقشه بسیار بوده است؟ دلیل اول در همان بخشی است که دو جای خالی دارد. پس به بخش بعدی که دلیلی دیگر را بیان میکند میرویم. این بخش می گوید تشخیص بیماری بر اساس توصیفات بیمار است تا نمونه گیریهای آزمایشگاهی که طبها تشخیص بیماری را دشوار میکند. حال سراغ جاهای خالی میرویم و به دنبال آن گزینه هایی می گردیم که تشخیص بیماری را دشوار میکنند که بهترین همان گزینه های A و D میباشند. وقتی علائم زیاد و گوناگون باشد، پزشک دچار مشکل می شود. وقتی این بیماری مثل بیماری های دیگر عمل کند، پزشک در تشخیص آن دچار مشکل می شود.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to (i) _____ them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive (ii) _____of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally (iii) _____ and none of which is the single true meaning.

Blank (i)
A. misunderstand
B. comprehend
C. complicate

Blank (ii)
D. stigma
E. blemish
F. allure

Blank (iii)
G. valid
H. frank
I. inveterate


@GRE_Borzabadi

MISUNDERSTAND (V.): غلط فهمیدن – سوبرداشت کردن
You can say don't misunderstand me when you want to correct a wrong impression that you think someone may have got about what you are saying.
Example: I'm not saying what he did was good; don't misunderstand me.

COMPREHEND (V.): فمیدن – درک کردن
If you comprehend something, you can understand it. (FORMAL)
Example: The man did not fully comprehend the article he read, so he decided to reread it.

COMPLICATE (V.): غامض کردن – پیچیده کردن
To complicate something means to make it more difficult to understand or deal with.
Example: To complicate matters further, everybody's vitamin requirements vary.

STIGMA (N.): ننگ – بدنامی – لکه ننگ
If something has a stigma attached to it, people think it is something to be ashamed of.
Example: Often people are afraid to admit they have a mental illness because of the stigma attached to psychiatric disorders.

BLEMISH (N.): عیب – ایرا – نقص
A blemish on something is a small fault in it.
Example: Without the slightest blemish, the painting was striking for its unsurpassed beauty.

ALLURE (V.): جاذبه – جذبه – زیبایی
The allure of something or someone is the pleasing or exciting quality that they have.
It's a game that has really lost its allure.

VALID (ADJ.): معتبر – درست – موثق
A valid argument, comment, or idea is based on sensible reasoning.
Example: They put forward many valid reasons for not exporting.

FRANK (ADJ.): رو راست – رک و صادق
If someone is frank, they state or express things in an open and honest way.
I had a good, frank talk with Mrs. Keller, and explained to her how difficult it was for me to do the task.
INVETERATE (ADJ.): دیرینه - مادرزاد
If you describe someone as, for example, an inveterate liar or smoker, you mean that they have lied or smoked for a long time and are not likely to stop doing it.
Example: Anderson has a reputation as an inveterate gambler.




Correct answer: B – E – G


@GRE_Borzabadi


Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to COMPREHEND them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive ALLURE of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally VALID and none of which is the single true meaning.


ترجمه: متن های بی ابهام به خوانندگان خود اجازه میدهند که سریع آنها را بفهمند، اما متن های مبهم جذبه جالب تفسیرهای چندگانه را دارند که همه آن تفسیرها به یک اندازه صحیح هستند و در عین حال هیچکدام از آنها تنها معنی ممکن واقعی نیستند.




توضیح: جای خالی اول را به راحتی میتوان کامل کرد. منطقی است که متن های بدون ابهام که حرف خود را صریح بیان میکنند را میتوان سریع فهمید. برای جا خالی دوم هم به دلیل کلمه "جالب" (attractive ) آمده به واقع باید دنبال یک کلمه مثبت بگردیم که همان گزینه E است. و اما برای جای خالی سوم بخش (none of which is the single true meaning) راهنمای ما است. این بخش میگوید هیچکدام از آن تفسیرها تنها معنی واقعی نیستند و بنابراین همه درست هستند یعنی گزینه G درست است که در عین حال این معنی را بوجود میاورد که " همه آن تفسیر های به یک اندازه صحیح هستند و در عین حال هیچکدام از آنها تنها معنی واقعی نیستند" که همین امر دلیل جالب بودنی که در جمله قبل از آن آمده است را تایید میکند.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.

Even the cleverest use of time management techniques is powerless to ______ the sun of minutes in a person's life (over 52 million, optimistically assuming a life expectancy of 100 years), so people squeeze as much as they could into each one of them.
A. justify
B. quantify
C. augment
D. enrich
E. measure
F. extend
@GRE_Borzabadi


JUSTIFY (V.): توجیه کردن – موجه نشان دادن
To justify a decision, action, or idea means to show or prove that it is reasonable or necessary.
Example: No argument can justify a war.

QUANTIFY (V.): میزان کمی را نشان دادن – مقدار سنجی کردن
If you try to quantify something, you try to calculate how much of it there is.
Example: It is difficult to quantify an exact figure as firms are reluctant to declare their losses.

AUGMENT (V.): افزایش دادن
To augment something means to make it larger, stronger, or more effective by adding something to it. (FORMAL)
Example: While searching for a way to augment the family income, she began making dolls.

ENRICH (V.): غنی کردن – توانمند کردن
To enrich something means to improve its quality, usually by adding something to it.
Example: It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting.

MEASURE (V.): اندازه گیری کردن – سنجیدن
If you measure the quality, value, or effect of something, you discover or judge how great it is.
Example: A grammar school's success was measured in terms of the number of pupils who got into university.

EXTEND (V.): طولانی کردن (از نظرزمانی یا مکانی)، توسعه دادن
If you extend something, you make it longer or bigger. If you extend something, you make it last longer than before or end at a later date.
Example: This year they have introduced three new products to extend their range.
Example: They have extended the deadline by twenty-four hours.

Correct answer: C – F

@GRE_Borzabadi



Even the cleverest use of time management techniques is powerless to AUGMENT / EXTEND the sum of minutes in a person's life (over 52 million, optimistically assuming a life expectancy of 100 years), so people squeeze as much as they could into each one of them.

ترجمه: حتی هوشمندانه ترین استفاده از تکنیک های مدیریت زمان ناتوان از افزودن به تعداد دقایقی که در زندگی انسان وجود دارد است ( بیش ار 52 میلیون دقیقه اگر خوشبینانه فرض کنیم که امید به زندگی 100 سال باشد)، بنابراین مردم تا آنجا که بتوانند رس تک تک این دقایق را می کشند.



توضیح: مدیریت زمان برای استفاده بهینه از زمان است، بنابراین چون متن میگوید این مدیریت ناتوان (powerless ) از کاری ( که همان فعل جای خالی ) می باشد است میتوانیم بگوییم ناتوان از بالا بردن یا همان افزایش دقایق زندگی ما است یعنی همان گزینه های C و Fدرست میباشند. ضمنا قسمت بعدی متن که میگوید مردم تا بتوانند رس این دقایق را می کشند دال بر درستی گزینه ها است چون مردم می دانند که زمانشان قابل افزایش از آنچه هست نیست پس سعی می کنند که نهایت استفاده از دقایق موجود را ببرند.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Noun-Pronoun Agreement (Part One)
تطابق اسم و ضمیر (قسمت اول)

ضمیر باید از نظر جمع و مفرد بودن، جنسیت و کلا از هر نظر با اسمی که به آن اشاره می کند مطابقت داشته باشد.
مثال:

1. The MANAGER allowed his employees to use HIS office to hold a meeting.
2. JEAN and JAKE often study together because THEY help each other understand difficult
biology concepts.
3. The high school basketball TEAM had ITS first winning season.

نکته 1: وقتی اسمی نامشخص مثل a person یا a human being اسم جمله باشد، غلط مصطلح بکار بردن their است ولی در این مواقع باید از he/she و غیره استفاده کنیم.
مثال:
1. A PERSON should review all of HIS or HER options before making a major career decision.
2. A REPORTER should make sure that HE or SHE always relays verifiable information.


نکته 2: برای ضمایر نامعین از he وshe و مشتقات مربوطه استفاده می کنیم. ضمایر نامعین عبارتند از:
Anybody – anyone- each- either – every- everybody- everyone
Everything -neither –nobody- no one –one- somebody- someone- something
مثال:
1. EACH of the employees has taken additional training in HIS or HER area of expertise.
2. EVERYONE in our department spent the entire evening preparing HIS or HER proposal.


توصیه: سعی کنید از نوشتن به طریقی که شما را مجبور کند بارها her or she بکار ببرید خوداری کنید. در این شرایط میتوانید از ساختارهای زبانی دیگر استفاده کنید.
یکی از کارهایی که میتوانید انجام بدهید کاربرد ساختار جمع است.
مثال:
EVERYONE in our department spent the entire evening preparing HIS or HER proposal.
The EXECUTIVES our department spent the entire evening preparing THEIR proposal.

اگر امکان جمع بستن وجود نداشت، ساختار را طوری عوض کنید که مجبور با استفاده از he or she نباشید.

مثال:
If AN EXECUTIVE does not submit a proposal, HE or SHE will be fired.

Instead write:

An executive WHO DOES NOT SUBMIT A PROPOSAL will be fired.
OR
An executive will be fired for NOT SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL.

تمرین:
1. Every manager did ______ best to promote the product.
2. Each of the siblings had to make ______ own bed.
3. A cell phone is a device of convenience and irritation, depending on how one views ______.
4. If anyone calls, ask ______ to try my cell number.
5. Cynthia, as well as Ruth, had time to complete ______ assignment.
6. Anyone who objects to the new policy should speak to ______ immediate supervisor.
7. Neither of the arrested teens would tell the officer ______ name.
8. As each graduate walked across the stage, ______ name and major were announced.
9. A person who wishes to adopt a child may contact ______ local social services.
10. Cell phones allow users to call from wherever ______ happen to be.






Answer key:
1. his or her
2. his or her
3. it
4. him or her
5. her
6. his or her
7. his or her
8. his or her
9. his or her
10. they
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.


While it is always clear that the author's message is heartfelt. it is mostly buried by shortcomings of style, organization, and production, although the book does become more ______ toward the end.
A. sincere
B. intelligible
C. orthodox
D. readable
E. frank
F. voluble

@GRE@Borzabadi

SINCERE (ADJ.): صادق – رک – مخلص
If you say that someone is sincere, you approve of them because they really mean the things they say. You can also describe someone's behavior and beliefs as sincere.
Example: I have sincere esteem for all who risked their life to rescue the hostages.

INTELLIGIBLE (ADJ.): قابل فهم
Something that is intelligible can be understood.
Example: The language of the biologist was intelligible to experts and non-experts alike.

ORTHODOX (ADJ.): متعارف – سنتی
Example: The tenured economic professors who had taught their orthodox ideas for years did not appreciate questions from the newly hired professor.
READABLE (ADJ.): قابل فهم
If you say that a book or article is readable, you mean that it is enjoyable and easy to read.
Example: This is an impeccably researched and very readable book.

FRANK (ADJ.): رو راست – رک – صادق
If someone is frank, they state or express things in an open and honest way.
Example: I asked him to be quite frank and tell me honestly what I could do to improve my work.

VOLUBLE (ADJ.): پر حرف – وراج
If you say that someone is voluble, you mean that they talk a lot with great energy and enthusiasm. (FORMAL)
Example: The voluble politician was never at a loss for words.

Correct answer: B – D


@GRE@Borzabadi



While it is always clear that the author's message is heartfelt, it is mostly buried by shortcomings of style, organization, and production, although the book does become more INTELLIGIBLE / READABLE toward the end.



ترجمه: درحالیکه همیشه واضح است که پیام نویسنده از قلبش برمیاید، ولی این پیام زیر کاستی های سبک نوشتن، ساختار، و تولید نوشته مدفون است، اگرچه کتاب نزدیکای پایان قابل فهم تر می شود.






توضیح: چون متن می گوید پیام نوسنده ااز قلب او بر میاید گزینه های A و E درست نیستند که بگوییم در پایان کتاب پیام صادقانه می شود. چون متن میگوید پیام زیر کاستی های سبک نوشتن، ساختار، و تولید نوشته مدفون است بنابرنتیجه میگیریم که پس نمیشود از آن سر درآورد ولی قسمت تضاد پایانی متن که با کلمه (although) آمده باید به این بخش "مدفون شدن پیام و غیرقابل فهم بودن آن" متضاد باشد که ما را به گزینه های B و D می برد.


@GRE@Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Consolidating memory is not instantaneous or even _____: every memory must be encoded and moved from short-term to long-term storage, and some of these memories are, for whatever reason, more vividly imprinted than others.
A. salutary
B. deliberate
C. sequential
D. momentary
E. inevitable

@GRE_Borzabadi

SALUTARY (ADJ.): مفید – سودمند
A salutary experience is good for you, even though it may seem difficult or unpleasant at first. (FORMAL)
Example: The board hopes the merger of the two companies will have salutary effects that will leave all the shareholders happy.

DELIBERATE (ADJ.): عمدی
If you do something that is deliberate, you planned or decided to do it beforehand, and so it happens on purpose rather than by chance.
Example: Witnesses say the firing was deliberate and sustained.

SEQUENTIAL (ADJ.): به توالی – به ترتیب بدنبال آمدن
Example: All correspondence is to be filed in a sequential manner, beginning with that which has been received most recently.

MOMENTARY (ADJ.): آنی – موقت
Something that is momentary lasts for a very short period of time, for example for a few seconds or less.
Example: After he hit his head against the wall, he experienced a momentary loss of consciousness.

INEVITABLE (ADJ.): گریز ناپذیر – حتمی
If something is inevitable, it is certain to happen and cannot be prevented or avoided.
Example: After the king died, it was inevitable that the clash for leadership should come.

Correct answer: E

@GRE_Borzabadi

Consolidating memory is not instantaneous or even INEVITABLE: every memory must be encoded and moved from short-term to long-term storage, and some of these memories are, for whatever reason, more vividly imprinted than others.

ترجمه: محکم شدن خاطره در ذهنی آنی و یا حتی حتمی نیست: هر خاطره باید کدبندی شده و از حافظه کوتاه مدت به حافظه بلند مدت برده شود و معلوم نیست به چه دلیلی ولی برخی از این خاطرات واضحتر از بقیه در ذهن حک می شوند.




توضیح: قسمتی از متن که میگوید "هر خاطره باید کدبندی شده و از حافظه کوتاه مدت به حافظه بلند مدت برده شود" تعریف آنی نبودن (not instantaneous) است و بخشی که میگوید " و معلوم نیست به چه دلیلی ولی برخی از این خاطرات واضحتر از بقیه در ذهن حک می شوند" نشان میدهد که حک شدن خاطرات حتمی نیست و بدلالیلی که متن میگوید نمیدانیم چرا برخی روشن ثبت و حک نمیشوند. پس ضمانتی بر حتمی بودن آنکه همه خاطره ها در ذهن محک شوند وجود ندارد ( یعنی واضح در ذهن حک و بعدا لاجرم حتمی راحت به یاد آورده نمی شوند.)


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Noun-Pronoun Agreement (Part 2)
تطابق ضمیر با اسم ( بخش 2)
@GRE_Borzabadi

نکته 1: وقتی دو اسم را با not only – but also, either – or , neither – nor ربط میدهیم، ضمیر با اسم دومی باید تطبیق کند.
مثال:
Not only the handpicked flowers but also the homemade peanut butter pie will win Briana's heart with ITS thoughtfulness.
Not only the homemade peanut butter pie but also the handpicked flowers will win Briana's heart with THEIR thoughtfulness.

نکته 2: به جمله زیر که مبهم است توجه کنید:
In Dan’s essay, HE argues that women should not serve on the front lines of battle.

به نظر میرسد که جمله درست است ولی چون مرجع ضمیر نقش اصلی اسم را ندارد و اسم اصلی essay است، از این ترکیبات بپرهیزید و به جای آن جمله را اینطور بنویسید.
In his essay, Dane argues that women should not serve on the front lines of battle.


نکته 3: به جمله زیر که مبهم است توجه کنید:
I have always been interested in a career in nursing and hope to be ONE after I finish the nursing program.

مرجع ONE در جمله فوق کدام است؟ اصلا مرجعی وجود ندارد. و جمله را می توان به طریق زیر اصلاح کرد.

I have always been interested in a career in nursing and hope to be A NURSE after I finish the nursing program.



نکته 4: به جمله زیر که مبهم است توجه کنید:
If you visit Egypt, you’ll find that THEY are friendly, open, and welcoming people.

مرجع THEY در جمله کدام است؟ مرجعی وجود ندارد و جمله را می توان به طریق زیر اصلاح کرد.

If you visit Egypt, you’ll find that THE EGYPTIANS are friendly, open, and welcoming


@GRE_Borzabadi



تمرین: جمله های زیراز نظر ضمیر ایراد دارند. شکل صحیح هر کدام را بنویسید.

1. According to Newsweek magazine, it states that the earth’s temperature is rising.

__________________________________________________________________



2. The salsa plate was empty, but we were tired of eating it anyway.

__________________________________________________________________



3. They say that the Chinese will soon be the leading consumers of petroleum.

__________________________________________________________________



4. It says in the paper that the president’s popularity is increasing.

__________________________________________________________________



5. In the contract it states that we will not be entitled to overtime pay.

___________________________________________________________________

6. Neither the students nor Joan was ready to undertake their new responsibility.
___________________________________________________________________




Answer key:


1. According to Newsweek magazine, the earth’s temperature is rising.
2. The salsa plate was empty, but we were tired of eating salsa anyway.
3. It is stated that the Chinese will soon be the leading consumers of petroleum.
4. The paper says that the president’s popularity is increasing.
6. Neither the students nor Joan was ready to undertake her new responsibility.
5. The contract states that we will not be entitled to overtime pay.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

1. Of all her works, this play is the most dependent on the dramatic conventions of the author's day; it was both the least _____ of her plays and the most commercially successful.
A. experimental
B. popular
C. formulaic
D. lucrative
E. contemporary


@GRE_Borzabadi



EXPERIMENTAL (ADJ.): جدید و آزمایشی
Something that is experimental is new or uses new ideas or methods, and might be modified later if it is unsuccessful.
Example: He tends to write bizarre and highly experimental pieces of music.

POPULAR (ADJ.): عامه پسند – محبوب
Popular newspapers, television programs, or forms of art are aimed at ordinary people and not at experts or intellectuals.
Example: Once again the popular press in Britain has been rife with stories about their marriage.

FORMULAIC (ADJ.): فرمول وار
If you describe a way of saying or doing something as formulaic, you are criticizing it because it is not original and has been used many times before in similar situations.
Example: His paintings are contrived and formulaic.

LUCRATIVE (ADJ.): سودآور– پرمنفعت
A lucrative activity, job, or business deal is very profitable.
Example: Thousands of ex-army officers have found lucrative jobs in private security firms.

CONTEMPORARY (ADJ.): معاصر- امروزی
Contemporary things are modern and relate to the present time.
Example: Perhaps he should have a more updated look, a more contemporary style.


Correct answer: A



@GRE_Borzabadi


Of all her works, this play is the most dependent on the dramatic conventions of the author's day; it was both the least EXPERIMENTAL of her plays and the most commercially successful.

ترجمه: ازمیان همه آثارش، این نمایشنامه از همه بیشتر بر قواعد نمایشنامه نویسی دراماتیک رایج در عصر این نویسنده متکی بود: این نمایشنامه کمتر از همه آزمایشی ( نوآورانه) و از نظر تجاری از موفق ترین بود.





توضیح: وقتی میگوییم که نمایشنامه ای بر اساس قواعد رایج در نمایشنامه نویسی نوشته شده است این بدان معنا است که در آن کار، تجربه استفاده از قواعد جدید وجود ندارد، یعنی این کار نوآوری ندارد که میشود همان گزینه A.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Historian Barbara Alpern Engel's task in writing a book about women in Russia must have been a (i) _____ one, because the (ii) _____ the Russian empire's peoples meant that Russian women could never be treated as a homogeneous group.

Blank (i)
A. motivating
B. boring
C. daunting
Blank (ii)
D. unity among
E. disinterest in
F. diversity of


@GRE_Borzabadi



MOTIVATING (ADJ.): انگیزه دهنده
Able to make someone eager to do something
Example: Our concern for our customers is the prime motivating force behind our success.

BORING (ADJ.): خسته کننده
Someone or something boring is so dull and uninteresting that they make people tired and impatient.
Example: Not only are mothers not paid but also most of their boring or difficult work is unnoticed.

DAUNTING (ADJ.): دشوار – سخت
Something that is daunting makes you feel slightly afraid or worried about dealing with it.
Example: He and his wife Jane were faced with the daunting task of restoring the gardens to their former splendor.

UNITY (N.): اتحاد
Unity is the state of different areas or groups being joined together to form a single country or organization.
Example: Senior politicians met today to discuss the future of European economic unity.

DISINTEREST (N.): بی طرفی
The state of not being influenced by personal involvement in something
Example: I do not claim any scholarly disinterest with this book.

DIVERSITY (N.): گوناگونی – تنوع
The diversity of something is the fact that it contains many very different elements.
Example: As the school has a mandatory dress code, there is no diversity in student wardrobes.



Correct answer: C – F



@GRE_Borzabadi




Historian Barbara Alpern Engel's task in writing a book about women in Russia must have been a DUANTING one, because the DIVERSITY OF the Russian empire's peoples meant that Russian women could never be treated as a homogeneous group.


ترجمه: کار این مورخ باربارا آلپرن انگلس در نوشتن کتابی در باره زنان روسیه حتما کار بسیار دشواری بوده است زیرا گوناگونی ملیت های مختلف امپراتوری روسیه این معنا را میداد که نمیشد به زنان روسی به عنوان یک گروه متجانس پرداخت.




توضیح: قسمت آخر جمله که میگوید " نمیشد به زنان روسی به عنوان یک گروه متجانس پرداخت" نشان میدهد که کار نوشتن در باره زنان دشوار بوده است. و بخش دوم دیگر این جمله باید " گوناگونی ملیت های مختلف" بازهم دلیل دشوار بودن نوشتن کتابی در مورد زنان را توجیه کند. د رعین حال اینکه " نمیشد به زنان روسی به عنوان یک گروه متجانس پرداخت" نشان میدهد که این ملیت های امپراتوری روسیه، گوناگونی داشته اند که حاصلش نامتجانس بودن زنان به عنوان یک گروه بوده است.




@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

As Ellen Donkin explains, in eighteenth-century England, writing plays (i) __ women. Even when the (ii) __ meant that playwriting did not bring personal fame, the work nevertheless enabled them to present their own views to the public and offered the possibility of acquiring capital.

Blank (i)
A. empowered
B. overextended
C. impressed

Blank (ii)
D. use of a pseudonym
E. lack of a producer
F. poor remuneration

@GRE_Borzabadi


EMPOWER (ADJ.): قادر ساختن – توانمند کردن
To empower someone means to give them the means to achieve something, for example to become stronger or more successful.
Example: Empowering the underprivileged lies in assuring them that education holds the real source of power.

OVEREXTEND (ADJ.): بیش از توانایی مالی یا جسمی و غیره) فعالیت خود را گسترش دادن)
If a person or organization is overextended, they have become involved in more activities than they can financially or physically manage.
Example: The overworked, overextended parent may be seen as unloving, but may simply be exhausted.
Example: The British East India Tea Company was overextended and faced bankruptcy.

IMPRESS (V.): تحت تاثیر قرار دادن
If something impresses you, you feel great admiration for it.
Example: What impressed him most was their speed.

PSEUDONYM (N.): (نام مستعار (به ویژه نویسندگان
A pseudonym is a name which someone, usually a writer, uses instead of his or her real name.
Example: Both plays were published under the pseudonym of Philip Dayre.

REMUNERATION (N.): مواجب – حقوق
Someone's remuneration is the amount of money that they are paid for the work that they do. (FORMAL)
Example: The continuing marked increase in the remuneration of the company's directors has angered the ordinary employees.




Correct answer: A – D


@GRE_Borzabadi



As Ellen Donkin explains, in eighteenth-century England, writing plays EMPOWERED women. Even when the PSEUDONYM meant that playwriting did not bring personal fame, the work nevertheless enabled them to present their own views to the public and offered the possibility of acquiring capital.



ترجمه: همانطور که الن دانکین توضیح می دهد، در انگلستان قرن هجدهم، نوشتن نمایشنامه، زنان را توانمند ساخت. حتی زمانی که استفاده از نام مستعار بدین معنی میشد که نمایشنامه نویسی شهرت شخصی نمی آورد، با این وجود، خود این کار زنان را قادر کرد که نظرات خود را به مردم عرضه کنند و نیز به انها امکان بخشید تا سرمایه بدست آورند.





توضیح: وقتی نخست تمام جمله را میخوانیم، این بخش میگوید:
"the work nevertheless enabled them to present their own views to the public and offered the possibility of acquiring capital"
متوجه می شویم که کار نمایشنامه نویسی برای زنان خوب بوده است یعنی آنها را توانمند ساخته است که می شود همان گزینه A. ولی بخش قبل از آن میگوید:
that playwriting did not bring personal fame""
این قسمت ما را به جواب جای خالی دوم می رساند. تنها وقتی کاری که این زنها می کردند آنها را به شهرت شخصی نمیتوانست برساند که آنها از درج نام واقعی خود ابا کنند که میشود همان گزینه .D



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

People love to talk about their commutes to and from work: those with an easy commute tend to (i)_____, while those who hate their commute think and speak of it as a core affliction, like a chronic illness. Once you raise the subject, the testimonies pour out, and, if your ears are tuned to it, you begin overhearing commute talk everywhere. People who are normally (ii)______ may, when describing their commutes, be unexpectedly (iii)______ divulging the intimate details of their lives.

Blank (i)
A. grumble
B. commiserate
C. gloat

Blank (ii)
D. inattentive
E. garrulous
F. circumspect

Blank (iii)
G. candid in
H. economical in
I. flustered about

@GRE_Borzabadi

GRUMBLE (V.): شکوه کردن – گله کردن
If someone grumbles, they complain about something in a bad-tempered way.
Example: Taft grumbled that the law so favored the criminal that trials seemed like a game of

COMMISERATE (V.): همدردی کردن
If you commiserate with someone, you show them pity or sympathy when something unpleasant has happened to them.
Example: As a mother, I commiserate strongly with the woman whose child was kidnapped.

GLOAT (V.): لذت بردن یا خوشی کردن طوری که باعث ناراحتی دیگران شود -
یا از شکست کسی ابراز خوشی کردن
If someone is gloating, they are showing pleasure at their own success or at other people's failure in an arrogant and unpleasant way.
Example: If you are the winner of a contest, you should not gloat and make your competitors feel inferior.

INATTENTIVE (ADJ.): بی توجه
Someone who is inattentive is not paying complete attention to a person or thing, which often causes an accident or problems.
Example: He was unusually inattentive in class and yawned so much one teacher sent him to the sick room.

GARRULOUS (ADJ.):پر حرف
If you describe someone as garrulous, you mean that they talk a great deal, especially about unimportant things.
Example: How am I going to sleep sitting next to this garrulous woman on my long flight home?

CIRCUMSPECT (ADJ.): با احتیاط، دوراندیش
If you are circumspect, you are cautious in what you do and say and do not take risks. (FORMAL)
Example: The banks should have been more circumspect in their dealings.

CANDID (ADJ.): رو راست – رک
When you are candid about something or with someone, you speak honestly.
Example: The teacher was quite candid about my chances of entering MIT School of Engineering.

ECONOMICAL (ADJ.): - خلاصه و موجز ( سبک نوشتار) صرفه جو – کم خرج
Economical means using the minimum amount of time, effort, or language that is necessary.
Example: Burn's novel, vividly and economically written, is a somber reflection on fame and its cost.

FLUSTERED (ADJ.): بهم ریخته و آشفته
When you're flustered, you're embarrassed, agitated, or just confused.
Example: When I over-plan my schedule, I can become very flustered in trying to get everything done completely and on time.


Correct answer : C - F- G

@GRE_Borzabadi


People love to talk about their commutes to and from work: those with an easy commute tend to GLOAT, while those who hate their commute think and speak of it as a core affliction, like a chronic illness. Once you raise the subject, the testimonies pour out, and, if your ears are tuned to it, you begin overhearing commute talk everywhere. People who are normally CIRCUMSPECT may, when describing their commutes, be unexpectedly CANDID IN divulging the intimate details of their lives.


ترجمه: مردم دوست دارند که که از جا به جای های روزانه شان از خانه به سر کار و برعکس حرف بزنند: آنهایی که راحت جا به جا می شوند بابتش نزد بقیه ابراز خوشی میکنند، در حالیکه آنهایی که از این جابه جایی های روزانه متنفرند ازآن بعنوان مشکل اصلی خود به مانند یک بیمار مزمن حرف میزنند. وقتی شما این موضوع را پیش میکشید، ابراز نظرها شروع می شوند و اگر گوش به این حرفهای بدهید، می فهمید که همه جا مردم شروع کرده اند که از این موضوع حرف بزنند. آنانی که معمولا آدمهایی محتاطی هستند به وقت توصیف جا به جایی های روزانه اشان ممکن است به طور غیر منتظره ای صادقانه جزییات خیلی خصوصی زندگیشان را بر ملا می کنند.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: جالی خالی اول همان گزینه C یعنی "gloat" می شود و دلیل آن هم عبارت love to talk و هم تضادی است که با while آمده است که بدنبال آن از افرادی صحبت میکند که از " این جابه جایی های روزانه متنفرند" و بنابراین افرادی دیگری که اتفاقا "که راحت جا به جا می شوند" باید از صحبت راجع به آن خوششان بیاید.
برای دو جای خالی بعدی، اولین نشانه عبارت " خیلی خصوصی زندگیشان را بر ملا می کنند" است. ریز زندگی را با دیگران مطرح کردن با کلمه "صادق" همخوانی دارد. و نشانه برای جای خالی دوم کلمات " unexpectedly" و " divulging" هستند. چه کسی وقتی کاری میکند، کاری غیرمنتظره کرده است؟ به واقع کسی که کاری خلاف انتظار می کند. در این متن اگر گزینه " circumspect" را انتخاب کنیم معما را حل کرده ایم چون فردی که محتاط است غالیا مسایل ریز و جزیی خود را با دیگران بی محابا مطرح نمیکند و جانب احتیاط را میگیرد و اگر همه چیز را راحت بگوید کاری خلاف انتظار کرده است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Biologists have little (i) _____ drawing the link between the success of humanity and human (ii) _____. Indeed, many biologists claim that this attribute, the ability to (iii) _____ or, to put it more sharply, to make individuals subordinate their self-interest to the needs of the group, lies at the root of human achievement.

Blank (i)
A. consensus regarding
B. compunction about
C. justification for

Blank (ii)
D. resilience
E. sociability
F. uniqueness

Blank (iii)
G. reflect
H. communicate
I. cooperate

@GRE_Borzabadi

CONSENSUS (N.): توافق جمعی - اتفاق آرا
A consensus is general agreement among a group of people.
Example: The consensus amongst the world's scientists is that the world is likely to warm up over the next few decades.

COMPUNCTION (N.): ندامت – پشیمانی - تردید
If you say that someone has no compunction about doing something, you mean that they do it without feeling ashamed or guilty.
Example: Although tears well up, he has no compunction about relating how he killed his father.

JUSTIFICATION (N.): توجیه
A justification for something is an acceptable reason or explanation for it.
Example: To me the only justification for a zoo is educational.

RESILIENCE (N.): مقاومت - پایداری- ارتجاع - برگشت‌پذیری
People and things show resilience, they are able to recover easily and quickly from unpleasant or damaging events.
Example: I am grateful for the catastrophe that taught me resilience.

SOCIABILITY (N.): اجتماعی بودن
People marked with Sociability are friendly and enjoy talking to other people.
Example: A true introvert, his sociability lagged behind others his age in the school.

UNIQUENESS (N.): بی نظیر بودن – بی همتایی
the quality of something or someone to be the only one of its/his kind represents its/his uniqueness
Example: The presidential candidate's absolute dominance of the political news for over a year signifies this uniqueness.

REFLECT (V.): فکر کردن – اندیشیدن
You can use reflect to indicate that a particular thought occurs to someone.
Example: Before one makes an important decision, one should take some time to reflect first.

COMMUNICATE (V.): محاوره کردن – ارتباط برقرار کردن
If you communicate with someone, you share or exchange information with them, for example by speaking, writing, or using equipment. You can also say that two people communicate.
Example: Officials of the CIA depend heavily on electronic mail to communicate with each other.

COOPERATE (V.): همکاری کردن
If you co-operate with someone, you work with them or help them for a particular purpose. You can also say that two people co-operate.
Example: The couple spoke about how they would co-operate in the raising of their child.


Correct answer: B – E – I


@GRE_Borzabadi


Biologists have little COMPUNCTION ABOUT drawing the link between the success of humanity and human SOCIABILITY. Indeed, many biologists claim that this attribute, the ability to COOPERATE or, to put it more sharply, to make individuals subordinate their self-interest to the needs of the group, lies at the root of human achievement.

ترجمه: زیست شناسان در اینکه بین موفقیت بشر و اجتماعی بودن او ارتباط قائل شوند اصلا شکی ندارند. به واقع، بسیاری از زیست شناسان ادعا می کنند که توانایی انسان در همکاری با هم ،یا دقیق تر بگوییم، توانایی انسان در اینکه منفعت شخصی خود را فرع نیازهای گروه نماید ریشه دستاورد بشری است.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: قسمت پایانی متن یعنی:
to put it more sharply, to make individuals subordinate their self-interest to the needs of the group, lies at the root of human achievement
( دقیق تر بگوییم، توانایی انسان در اینکه منفعت شخصی خود را فرع نیازهای گروه نماید ریشه دستاورد بشری است.)
نشان میدهد که کلمه درست برای جای خالی سوم همان گرینه I یعنی ( cooperate) است. وقتی جای خالی سوم کامل شود این قسمت جواب جای خالی دوم را میدهد ، یعنی این قسمت:
Indeed, many biologists claim that this attribute, the ability to COOPERATE
(به واقع، بسیاری از زیست شناسان ادعا می کنند که توانایی انسان در همکاری با هم )
نشان میدهد که گزینه درست برای جای خالی دوم sociability) E ) است. حالا براحتی جای خالی اول را میتوان کامل کرد که همان گزینه compunction about) B ) است. وقتی زیست شناسان معتقد باشند که اجتماعی بودن بشر که همان خصیصه همکاری با هم است از خصایص ریشه ای بشر است بنابراین آنان در اینکه " بین موفقیت بشر و اجتماعی بودن او ارتباط قائل شوند اصلا شکی ندارند." درست ترین انتخاب است.



@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.
Select TWO answer Choices.

Although in his new book he tends to repeat himself like a _____ uncle, McHughen makes a persuasive case for the safety of tinkering with genes to create new foods.
A. taciturn
B. reserved
C. prototypical
D. cantankerous
E. loquacious
F. garrulous

@GRE_Borzabadi

TACITURN (ADJ.): کم حرف
A taciturn person does not say very much and can seem unfriendly.
Example: My shy brother is taciturn and rarely speaks in public.

RESERVED (ADJ.): گوشه گیرو کم حرف
Someone who is reserved keeps their feelings hidden.
Example: She was a little reserved when she came to the party, but after a while loosened up a bit.

PROTOTYPICAL (ADJ.): نمونه بارز
Prototypical is used to indicate that someone or something is a very typical example of a type of person or thing. (FORMAL)
Example: Park Ridge is the prototypical American suburb.

CANTANKEROUS (ADJ.): بد خلق
Someone who is cantankerous is always finding things to argue or complain about. (WRITTEN)
Example: The leading character in the movie was a cantankerous old man who hated the world.

LOQUACIOUS (ADJ.): پرحرف
If you describe someone as loquacious, you mean that they talk a lot. (FORMAL)
Example: She is so loquacious that she chats all day long without a pause and that puts everyone in trouble.

GARRULOUS (ADJ.): پرحرف
If you describe someone as garrulous, you mean that they talk a great deal, especially about unimportant things.
Example: I found her in conversation with Mrs. Williams, a garrulous old woman who lived next door.

Correct answer: E –F

@GRE_Borzabadi



Although in his new book he tends to repeat himself like a LOQUACIOUS/GARRULOUS uncle, McHughen makes a persuasive case for the safety of tinkering with genes to create new foods.


ترجمه: اگرچه مک هوگن در کتاب جدیدش مثل یه عموی پرحرف همش حرفهایش را تکرار میکند، اما در حمایت از کار بر روی ژنها برای تولید غذاهای جدید استدلال قانع کننده ای ارائه میدهد.




توضیح: بدلیل وجود کلمه "اگرچه" ( although) در اول جمله باید بدنبال تضاد میان دو بخش این جمله باشیم. جای خالی در بخش اول جمله قرار دارد، پس به قسمت دوم جمله میرویم تا متضاد آن را برای جای خالی انتخاب کنیم. در بخش دوم جمله داریم که این آقای مک هوگن استدلال قانع کننده ای را ارائه داده است و بنابراین گزینه های A و B ( کم حرف جلب نظر میکنند ولی چون فردی که استدلال مطرح میکند گوشه گیر و تنها و کم حرف نیست و ثانیا چون درهمین قسمت اول جمله داریم که این آقا " همش حرفهایش را تکرار میکند" و این با کم حرف بودن همتاهنگ نیست این دو گزینه را رد میکنیم و به سراغ دو گزینه هم معنی دیگر یعنی دو گزینه آخر میرویم یعنی "پرحرف" که هم با اینکه " همش حرفهایش را تکرار میکند" همخوان هستند و هم تضاد خوبی با بخش دوم دارد چون آدمی که استدلال منطقی و قانع کننده ارائه می دهد با آدمی که حراف است و دائم حرفهایش را تکرار میکند و درنتیجه شاید حتی پرت و پلا هم بگوید سازگاری ندارد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.
Select TWO answer Choices.

In a field of egotists, Bloomfield is ______, often praising her competitors and punctuating her correspondence with self-deprecating remarks.
A. unassuming
B. complimentary
C. acerbic
D. ingenuous
E. cutting
F. modest

@GRE_Borzabadi


UNASSUMING (ADJ.): متواضع – فروتن
If you describe a person or their behavior as unassuming, you approve of them because they are quiet and do not try to appear important.
Example: He's a man of few words, very polite and unassuming.

COMPLIMENTARY (ADJ.): ستایش آمیز - تمجیدی
If you are complimentary about something, you express admiration for it.
Example: We often get complimentary remarks regarding the cleanliness of our patio.

ACERBIC (ADJ.): گزنده – تلخ و تند
Acerbic humor is critical and direct. (FORMAL)
Example: The writer’s acerbic tone did not sit well with people who had an issue with harsh criticism.

INGENUOUS (ADJ.): صاف و ساده- بی ریا
If you describe someone as ingenuous, you mean that they are innocent, trusting, and honest. (FORMAL)
Example: To the defendant’s surprise, the judge found her innocent of the kidnapping charges because she was ingenuous and knew nothing about her friend’s plans.

CUTTING (ADJ.): گزنده – تلخ و تند
A cutting remark is unkind and likely to hurt someone's feelings.
Example: People make cutting remarks to help themselves feel superior or powerful.

MODEST (ADJ.): متواضع – فروتن
If you say that someone is modest, you approve of them because they do not talk much about their abilities or achievements.
Example: Robbie would never admit that he is a better squash player than Gerry because he is simply too modest.


Correct answer: A – F

@GRE_Borzabadi





In a field of egotists, Bloomfield is UNASSUMING/MODEST, often praising her competitors and punctuating her correspondence with self-deprecating remarks.

ترجمه: در یک رشته علمیکه رشته مغروها است، بلومفیلید متواضع است که اغلب رقیبان خود را می ستاید و در مکاتبات خود هر از گاهی خود را هم به سخره میگیرد.




توضیح: جمله حاضر کلمه ای که باید در جای خالی بکار رود را تعریف کرده است. فردی که رقبای خود را تمجید میکند وگاه خود را هم به سخره میگیرد، آدمی متواضع است، آدمی متفاوت با آدمهای دیگر در آن رشته که آدمهایی مغرور و خودپسند هستند.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

In the solar system, collisions involving cosmic objects are among the most _____ processes shaping surfaces: images of many solar objects show a proliferation of impact craters formed throughout the past 4.5 billion years.
A. cataclysmic
B. pervasive
C. misleading
D. uncontrollable
E. random

@GRE_Borzabadi

CATACLYSMIC (adj.): فاجعه بار
A cataclysmic event is one that changes a situation or society very greatly, especially in an unpleasant way. (FORMAL)
Example: The cataclysmic power of that little bomb should be more than a match for even this monster.

PERVASIVE (adj.):فراگستر– همه جا حاضر - فراگیر
Something, especially something bad, that is pervasive is present or felt throughout a place or thing. (FORMAL)
Example: The media’s pervasive coverage of the epidemic has most of the country living in fear.

MISLEADING (adj.): غلط – گمراه کننده
If you describe something as misleading, you mean that it gives you a wrong idea or impression.
Example: The article contains several misleading statements.

UNCONTROLLABLE (adj.): غیر قابل مهار
If you describe a situation or series of events as uncontrollable, you believe that nothing can be done to control them or to prevent things from getting worse.
Example: If political and ethnic problems are not resolved the situation could become uncontrollable.

RANDOM (adj.): اتفاقی – تصادفی
If you describe events as random, you mean that they do not seem to follow a definite plan or pattern.
Example: I caught my son making prank calls to random phone numbers.


Correct answer: B
@GRE_Borzabadi


In the solar system, collisions involving cosmic objects are among the most PERVASIVE processes shaping surfaces: images of many solar objects show a proliferation of impact craters formed throughout the past 4.5 billion years.

ترجمه: در منظومه شمسی، تصادم هایی که اجرام سماوی در آنها دخیل هستند در میان فراگیرترین فرآینده هایی میباشند که سطح کرات و اجرام دیگر در این منظومه را شکل میدهند: تصاویرمربوط به بسیاری از اجرام منظومه شمسی، فراوانی حفره های تصادمی را نشان میدهند که در طول چهار و نیم بیلیون سال قبل تا به حال شکل گرفته اند.



توضیح: نیمه آخری جمله که در زیر آمده است جواب درست برای جای خالی را نشان میدهد:
"images of many solar objects show a proliferation of impact craters formed throughout the past 4.5 billion years."
طبق این بخش از جمله سطح اجرام موجود در منظومه شمسی ( که طبیعتا شامل کرات و قمرها می شود) پوشیده از حفره های تصادمی است. سوالی که باید از خودمان میپرسیم این است که این حفره ها از کجا آمده اند؟ بخش اول جمله، که جای خالی دارد میگوید اینها حاصل تصادم اجرام سماوی با اجرام منظومه شمسی میباشند و چون این حفره ها ی تصادمی فراوانند، نتیجه می گیریم که تصادم اجرام سماوی با اجرام منظومه شمسی فراگیر است که می شود همان گزینه B.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Writing Clear Sentences (Part 1- Misplaced Modifiers)
نوشتن جملات بی ابهام ( جایگاه درست عبارات توصیفی)
@GRE_Borzabadi
برخی عبارات توصیفی که شامل عبارات حرف اضافه ای و عبارات توصیفی دیگر هستند گاهی در جای درست خود در جمله قرار نمیگیرند و باعث ابهام در معنی و برخی موارد باعث غلط شدن جمله می شوند.
مثال:
آنچه در جمله زیر ایجاد ابهام میکند عبارت "working at the supermarket" است.
1. The grocery clerk won the Mega Millions lottery working at the supermarket.
Intended meaning: The grocery clerk was working at the supermarket.
Unintended meaning: The Mega Millions lottery was working at the supermarket.



آنچه در جمله زیر ایجاد ابهام میکند عبارت "who works for the hospital" است.
2. The social worker met with the terminally ill patient’s family who works for the hospital.
Intended: The social worker works for the hospital.
Unintended: The terminally ill patient’s family works for the hospital.



به چند نمونه دیگر از جملات مشکل دار و نحوه تصحیح آنها توجه کنید.

1. They could see the Goodyear blimp SITTING ON THE FRONT LAWN. (The Goodyear blimp was sitting on the front lawn?)

Correct: SITTING ON THE FRONT LAWN, they could see the Goodyear blimp. (The intended meaning—that the Goodyear blimp was visible from the front lawn—is now clear.)



2. We had a hamburger after the movie, WHICH WAS TOO GREASY FOR MY TASTE. (The movie was too greasy for my taste?)

Correct: After the movie, we had a hamburger, WHICH WAS TOO GREASY FOR MY TASTE.
(The intended meaning—that the hamburger was greasy—is now clear.)



3. Our phone ALMOST RANG fifteen times last night. (The phone almost rang fifteen
times, but in fact did not ring at all?)

Correct: Our phone rang ALMOST FIFTEEN TIMES last night. (The intended meaning—that the phone rang a little under fifteen times—is now clear.)



کلمات دیگری که باید در کاربرد آنها دقت داشت عبارتند از: only, even, hardly, nearly, and often . این کلمات باید درست قبل از کلمه ای که توصیف می کنند قرار گیرند.
مثال:

1. ONLY the coach wanted Jamie to win.
[Meaning: No one else wanted Jamie to win.]

2. The coach ONLY wanted Jamie to win.
[Meaning: This is all the coach wants, and the coach is not expecting anything else.]

3. The coach wanted ONLY Jamie to win.
[Meaning: The coach doesn’t want anyone except Jamie to win.]


@GRE_Borzabadi



تمرین:آن عبارت توصیفی که در هر یک از جملات زیر غلط بکار رفته است را پیدا و ان را جای درست قرار دهید.


Example:

Wrong: Anita returned the hamburger to the supermarket THAT WAS SPOILED.
Correct: Anita returned the hamburger THAT WAS SPOILED to the supermarket.

1. The tiger growled at a passerby at the back of his cage.
2. Lee hung colorful scarves over her windows made of green and blue silk.
3. We watched the fireworks standing on our front porch.
4. Jason almost has two hundred friends on Facebook.
5. The salesclerk exchanged the blue sweater for a yellow one with a smile.
6. We all stared at the man in the front row of the theater with curly purple hair.
7. I love the cookies from the bakery with the chocolate frosting.
8. The faculty decided to strike during their last meeting.
9. Larry looked on as his car burned with disbelief.
10. My cousin sent me instructions on how to get to her house in a letter.





Answer key:

1. AT THE BACK OF HIS CAGE , the tiger growled at a passerby.
2. Lee hung colorful scarves MADE OF GREEN AND BLUE SILK over her windows.
3. STANDING ON OUR FRONT PORCH , we watched the fireworks.
4. Jason has ALMOST two hundred friends on Facebook.
5. WITH A SMILE , the salesclerk exchanged the blue sweater for a yellow one.
6. We all stared at the man WITH CURLY PURPLE HAIR in the front row of the theater.
7. I love the cookies WITH THE CHOCOLATE FROSTING from the bakery.
8. DURING THEIR LAST MEETING , the faculty decided to strike.
9. Larry looked on WITH DISBELIEF as his car burned.
10. My cousin sent me instructions IN A LETTER on how to get to her house.
ACTIVITY 1

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

If the study proves that bears are still endemic to the area, the proposal to introduce additional bears of the same species will probably face less opposition, since the plan would then involve _____ a historic population, not trying to build population from scratch.
A. reclassifying
B. augmenting
C. forestalling
D. publicizing
E. winnowing
@GRE_Borzabadi


Reclassify (v.): طبقه بندی دوباره کردن
To reclassify things means to divide them again after they have already been divided into groups or types
Example: The zoologists had toreclassify the mollusks after they found new species.

Augment (v.): افزودن – زیاد کردن
To augment something means to make it larger, stronger, or more effective by adding something to it. (FORMAL)
Example: While searching for a way to augment the family income, she began making dolls.

Forestall (v.): با پیش دستی کردن جلوی چیزی یا کاری را گرفتن – مانع شدن
If you forestall someone, you realize what they are likely to do and prevent them from doing it.
Example: Large numbers of police were in the square to forestall any demonstrations.

Publicize (v.): تبلیغ کردن – به عموم شناساندن
If you publicize a fact or event, you make it widely known to the public.
Example: The author appeared on television to publicize her latest book.

Winnow (v.): درست را از غلط جدا کردن، سرند کردن
If you winnow a group of things or people, you reduce its size by separating the ones that are useful or relevant from the ones that are not. (LITERARY)
Administration officials have winnowed the list of candidates to three.

Correct answer: B
@GRE_Borzabadi


If the study proves that bears are still endemic to the area, the proposal to introduce additional bears of the same species will probably face less opposition, since the plan would then involve AUGMENTING a historic population, not trying to build population from scratch.

ترجمه: اگر این مطالعه ثابت کند که خرس ها هنوز از حیوانات بومی منطقه هستند، آنوقت پیشنهاد آوردن خرس های دیگر از همین گونه بومی با مخالفت کمتر روبرو خواهد شد زیرا این طرح شامل افزودن به جمعیت بومی خرس ها است و به معنی تلاش از صفر برای ایجاد جمعیتی از خرس ها نخواهد بود.




توضیح: متن میگوید اگر تحقیق ثابت کند که منطقه خود خرس بومی دارد و اگر خرس هایی که میخواهند آورده شوند از همان گونه خرس های بومی باشند ، مخالفت با این کار میتواند کمتر شود وبعد در ادامه متن که در آن جای خالی وجود دارد دلیل مخالفت کمتر را می گوید. در این قسمت میگوید مخالفت کمتر به این دلیل نیست که طرح میخواهد جمعیت خرس را که وجود نداشته از صفر شروع و افزایش دهد بلکه دلیل کمتر شدن مخالفت با وارد کردن خرس آن است که این واردکردن، جمعیت تاریخی ( جمعیت بومی خرس های از قبل موجود) را طبعا افزایش می دهد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Writing Clear Sentences (Part 2- Misplaced Prepositional Phrases)
نوشتن جملات بی ابهام ( جایگاه درست عبارات حرف اضافه ای)

عبارات حرف اضافه ای ترکیبات توصیفی هستند که معمولا بعد از کلمه ای که توصیف می کنند ( اسم یا فعل و غیره) قرار میگیرند. برای آنکه در استفاده از این عبارات ابهام پیش نیاید بهتر است که این عبارات درست بیشتر بعد از کلمه ای که توصیف میکنند بیایند.
مثال 1:
Incorrect: People often believe IN THE NEWSPAPER what they read.
برای انکه جمله درست و بدون ابهام شود لازم است عبارت توصیفی را بعد از کلمه ای که توصیف میکند به شکل زیر قرار دهیم.
Correct: Incorrect: People often believe what they read IN THE NEWSPAPER.

مثال 2:
Incorrect: The consequences of depression are frequently overlooked, SUCH AS LOW SELF-ESTEEM AND SUICIDE.
Correct: The consequences of depression , SUCH AS LOW SELF-ESTEEM AND SUICIDE , are frequently overlooked.

تمرین: با تغییر جای عبارات توصیفی، جملات زیر را درست کنید.

1. Gayle found Rick’s missing sociology notes ON THE WAY TO CLASS.
_________________________________________________________________



2. By mistake, he hit the neighbor’s dog with his bike ON THE NOSE.
_________________________________________________________________


3. In this forest, you’ll see many types of coniferous trees that you can see not every forest, SUCH AS PINE AND SPRUCE.
_________________________________________________________________

4. I read that the cat burglar has been apprehended IN TODAY’S PAPER.
_________________________________________________________________

5. We stared at the student in the back row WITH A RACCOON COAT.
_________________________________________________________________



جواب:
1. ON THE WAY TO CLASS , Gayle found Rick’s missing sociology notes.
2. By mistake, he hit the neighbor’s dog ON THE NOSE with his bike.
3. In this forest, you’ll see many types of coniferous trees, SUCH AS PINE AND SPRUCE., that you can see not ery forest.
4. I read IN TODAY’S PAPER that the cat burglar has been apprehended.
5. We stared at the student WITH A RACCOON COAT in the back row.
GRE_Borzabadi

The author of this travel guide (i) _____ to show his readers Cairo as it really is, but his information is not reliable: for example, his geography is (ii) ______ , with one walking tour covering areas of the city that are twenty y miles apart.

Blank (i)
A. designs
B. forbears
C. purports

Blank (ii)
D. erratic
E. erudite
F. extensive

@GRE_Borzabadi


DESIGN (V.): طراحی کردن
When someone designs a garment, building, machine, or other object, they plan it and make a detailed drawing of it from which it can be built or made.
Example: They wanted to design a machine that was both attractive and practical.

FORBEAR (V.): خوداری از انجام کار کردن
If you forbear to do something, you do not do it although you have the opportunity or the right to do it. (FORMAL)
Example: Protesters largely forbore from stone-throwing and vandalism.

PURPORT (V.): ادعای چیزی را داشتن
If you say that someone or something purports to do or be a particular thing, you mean that they claim to do or be that thing, although you may not always believe that claim. (FORMAL)
Example: The website is for entertainment only and does not purport to give you an accurate prediction of your future.

ERRATIC (ADJ.):و بی حساب و کتاب غیرقابل پیش بینی – ناگهانی – نا منظم
Something that is erratic does not follow a regular pattern, but happens at unexpected times or moves along in an irregular way.
Example: Argentina's erratic inflation rate threatens to upset the plans.

ERUDITE (ADJ.): عالمانه – فرهیخته
If you describe someone as erudite, you mean that they have or show great academic knowledge. You can also use erudite to describe something such as a book or a style of writing. (FORMAL)
Example: As a result of having studied abroad several years, Helen has become quite erudite on the subject of art history.

EXTENSIVE (ADJ.): گسترده – جامع – فراگیر
Something that is extensive covers a wide range of details, ideas, or items.
Example: Developments in South Africa receive extensive coverage in The Sunday Telegraph.

Correct answer: C – D

@GRE_Borzabadi



The author of this travel guide PURPORTS to show his readers Cairo as it really is, but his information is not reliable: for example, his geography is ERRATIC , with one walking tour covering areas of the city that are twenty miles apart.

ترجمه: نویسنده کتاب راهنمای گردشگری ادعا میکند که به خواننده گان، قاهره را آنطور که واقعا هست نشان میدهد، ولی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست: برای مثال جغرافیای او نامنظم و بی حساب وکتاب است طوری که در یک دور گردشگری، مناطقی از شهر را پوشش میدهد که بیست مایل از هم فاصله دارند.


توضیح: برای پر کردن جای خالی اول، به این بخش که " ولی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست" رجوع می کنیم. پس باید خود نویسنده قبلش گفته باشد که اینطور نیست یعنی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد است . گزینه C بهترین جواب است چون این معنی را میرساند که خودش ادعای قابل اعتماد بودن اطلاعاتش را دارد. برای پر کردن قسمت دوم باید بدانیم که مثالی که از جغرافی عرضه شده در کتاب آورده شده باید ثابت کند که " اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست" و تنها گزینه ای که این امر را نشان میدهد گزینه D است که نشان میدهد نقاطی که در یک دور گردشگری در کتاب آورده شده اند آنقدر از هم فاصله دارند که اصلا در یک دور نمی شود به آنها پرداخت که این حکایت از آن دارد که نویسنده با جایگاه جغرافیایی منطقه آشنا نیست.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The author of this travel guide (i) _____ to show his readers Cairo as it really is, but his information is not reliable: for example, his geography is (ii) ______ , with one walking tour covering areas of the city that are twenty y miles apart.

Blank (i)
A. designs
B. forbears
C. purports

Blank (ii)
D. erratic
E. erudite
F. extensive

@GRE_Borzabadi


DESIGN (V.): طراحی کردن
When someone designs a garment, building, machine, or other object, they plan it and make a detailed drawing of it from which it can be built or made.
Example: They wanted to design a machine that was both attractive and practical.

FORBEAR (V.): خوداری از انجام کار کردن
If you forbear to do something, you do not do it although you have the opportunity or the right to do it. (FORMAL)
Example: Protesters largely forbore from stone-throwing and vandalism.

PURPORT (V.): ادعای چیزی را داشتن
If you say that someone or something purports to do or be a particular thing, you mean that they claim to do or be that thing, although you may not always believe that claim. (FORMAL)
Example: The website is for entertainment only and does not purport to give you an accurate prediction of your future.

ERRATIC (ADJ.):و بی حساب و کتاب غیرقابل پیش بینی – ناگهانی – نا منظم
Something that is erratic does not follow a regular pattern, but happens at unexpected times or moves along in an irregular way.
Example: Argentina's erratic inflation rate threatens to upset the plans.

ERUDITE (ADJ.): عالمانه – فرهیخته
If you describe someone as erudite, you mean that they have or show great academic knowledge. You can also use erudite to describe something such as a book or a style of writing. (FORMAL)
Example: As a result of having studied abroad several years, Helen has become quite erudite on the subject of art history.

EXTENSIVE (ADJ.): گسترده – جامع – فراگیر
Something that is extensive covers a wide range of details, ideas, or items.
Example: Developments in South Africa receive extensive coverage in The Sunday Telegraph.

Correct answer: C – D

@GRE_Borzabadi



The author of this travel guide PURPORTS to show his readers Cairo as it really is, but his information is not reliable: for example, his geography is ERRATIC , with one walking tour covering areas of the city that are twenty miles apart.

ترجمه: نویسنده کتاب راهنمای گردشگری ادعا میکند که به خواننده گان، قاهره را آنطور که واقعا هست نشان میدهد، ولی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست: برای مثال جغرافیای او نامنظم و بی حساب وکتاب است طوری که در یک دور گردشگری، مناطقی از شهر را پوشش میدهد که بیست مایل از هم فاصله دارند.


توضیح: برای پر کردن جای خالی اول، به این بخش که " ولی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست" رجوع می کنیم. پس باید خود نویسنده قبلش گفته باشد که اینطور نیست یعنی اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد است . گزینه C بهترین جواب است چون این معنی را میرساند که خودش ادعای قابل اعتماد بودن اطلاعاتش را دارد. برای پر کردن قسمت دوم باید بدانیم که مثالی که از جغرافی عرضه شده در کتاب آورده شده باید ثابت کند که " اطلاعات او قابل اعتماد نیست" و تنها گزینه ای که این امر را نشان میدهد گزینه D است که نشان میدهد نقاطی که در یک دور گردشگری در کتاب آورده شده اند آنقدر از هم فاصله دارند که اصلا در یک دور نمی شود به آنها پرداخت که این حکایت از آن دارد که نویسنده با جایگاه جغرافیایی منطقه آشنا نیست.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Writing Clear Sentences (Part 3- Misplaced Clauses)
نوشتن جملات بی ابهام ( جایگاه درست شبه جمله ها)
@GRE_Borzabadi
گاهی به بدلیل قرار گرفتن شبه جمله های توصیفی (Adjective Clauses) و شبه جمله های قیدی (Adverb Clauses) در جای نامناسب در جمله، معنی و ساختار جمله نامفهوم و غلط می شود. برای مثال به مورد زیر توجه کنید.

Renaldo lost an important account after he was hired and was fired.

جمله از نظر ساختاری درست است ولی از نظ معنایی بی مفهوم است مگر اینکه آن را به طریق زیر باز نویسی کنیم.

After he was hired, Renaldo lost an important account and was fired.


به مثال های دیگری که در زیر آمده است دقت کنید.


مثال 1:
The company, BECAUSE OF RECENT COMPLAINTS FILED BY EMPLOYEES, was audited.
مستقل بیاید در درون شبه جمله مستقل جمله فوق غلط است چون نویسنده شبه جمله قیدی وابسته را که باید قبل یا بعد از شبه قرار داده است. شکل صحیح جمله عبارت است از:
BECAUSE OF RECENT COMPLAINTS FILED BY EMPLOYEES, the company was audited.


مثال 2:
The officer read the suspect his Miranda rights WHO WAS FROM THE BEST POLICE DEPARTMENT.
جمله فوق غلط است. شبه جمله های توصیفی عموما بدنبال اسمی که توصیف می کنند می آیند و بنابراین اگر بین شبه جمله توصیفی و اسمی که مورد وصف است فاصله بیفتد، جمله غلط می شود. شکل صحیح جمله عبارت است از:
The officer WHO WAS FROM THE BEST POLICE DEPARTMENT read the suspect his Miranda rights

@GRE_Borzabadi

تمرین: جملات زیر را تصحیح کنید.

1. They flew to San Juan in their private jet where they always escape for the winter.
________________________________________________________________
2. We all laughed , when we meet one another at a party, at the picture of Rita on a roller coaster.
________________________________________________________________
3. The professor found the research paper in the writing lab that she lost.
________________________________________________________________
4. George showed the photos to the client that he shot last week in Santa Fe.
________________________________________________________________
5. They both agreed after the contract was signed to renegotiate some of the conditions.
________________________________________________________________


Answer key:

1. They flew to San Juan WHERE THEY ALWAYS ESCAPE FOR THE WINTER in their private jet.
2. WHEN WE MEET ONE ANOTHER AT A PARTY, we all laughed at the picture of Rita on a roller coaster.
3. The professor found the research paper THAT SHE LOST in the writing lab.
4. George showed the photos THAT HE SHOT LAST WEEK IN SANTA FE to the client.
5. AFTER THEY NEGOTIATED SOME OF THE CONDITIONS, they both agreed to sign the contract.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Applications of, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) have fared best in contexts in which habitat condition is closely linked to species condition and the cause of habitat degradation is easily identified. The achievements of the ESA in those contexts, however, have (i) _____ that other uses of the act can (ii) _____ that record even where such favorable conditions do
not (iii) _____.

Blank (i )
A. quelled the conviction
B. presaged the uncertainty
C. fostered the misconception

Blank (ii)
D. mitigate
E. duplicate
F. elucidate

Blank (iii)
G. vary
H. pertain
I. diminish

@GRE_Borzabadi
QUELL (V.): فرونشاندن سرکوب کردن
To quell opposition or violent behavior means to stop it.
Example: Troops eventually quelled the unrest.
If you quell an unpleasant feeling such as fear or anger, you stop yourself or other people from having that feeling.
Example: The Information Minister is trying to quell fears of a looming oil crisis.

CONVICTION (n.): باور – اعتقاد راسخ
A conviction is a strong belief or opinion.
Example: Their religious convictions prevented them from taking up arms.

PRESAGE (V.): نشان چیزی بودن – پیش درآمد چیزی بودن
If something presages a situation or event, it is considered to be a warning or sign of what is about to happen. (FORMAL)
The dawn's clear sky seemed to presage a bright hot summer's day.

UNCERTAINTY (n.): عدم یقین – ناپایداری
Example: he became president during a period of political uncertainty.

FOSTER (V.): حمایت کردن – تقویت کردن
To foster something such as an activity or idea means to help it to develop.
Example: He said that developed countries had a responsibility to foster global economic growth to help new democracies.

MISCONCEPTION (n.): باور غلط
A misconception is an idea that is not correct.
Example: There are many fears and misconceptions about cancer.

MITIGATE (V.): تسکین دادن – کم کردن
To mitigate something means to make it less unpleasant, serious, or painful. (FORMAL)
The cost of getting there is mitigated by Sydney's offer of a subsidy.

DUPLICATE (V.): تکرار کردن -
If you duplicate something that has already been done, you repeat or copy it.
Example: His task will be to duplicate his success overseas here at home.

ELUCIDATE (V.): توضیح دادن – روشن کردن
If you elucidate something, you make it clear and easy to understand. (FORMAL)
Example: Haig went on to elucidate his personal principle of war.

VARY (V.): تغییر دادن – تغییر کردن
If things vary, they are different from each other in size, amount, or degree.
Example: As they're handmade, each one varies slightly.
If something varies or if you vary it, it becomes different or changed.
Example: You are welcome to vary the diet.

PERTAIN (V.): مربوط بودن
pertain
If one thing pertains to another, it relates, belongs, or applies to it. (FORMAL)
Example: The restrictions he imposed pertained to the type and height of buildings and the activities for which they could be used.

DIMINISH (V.): کم کردن – کم شدن
When something diminishes, or when something diminishes it, it becomes reduced in size, importance, or intensity.
Example: The threat of nuclear war has diminished.
Example: Federalism is intended to diminish the power of the central state.


Correct answer: C – E – H


@GRE_Borzabadi
Applications of, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) have fared best in contexts in which habitat condition is closely linked to species condition and the cause of habitat degradation is easily identified. The achievements of the ESA in those contexts, however, have FOSTER THE MISCONCEPTION that other uses of the act can DUPLICATE that record even where such favorable conditions do not PERTAIN.

ترجمه: کاربردهای قانون "گونه های در خطر" در جاهایی خوب عمل کرده است که در آنها وضعیت زیستگاه هر گونه، با وضعیت خود گونه ارتباطی نزدیک دارد و علت خراب شدن زیستگاه به راحتی قابل تشخیص است. این دستاوردهای قانون در این جاها ( که قانون خوب موفق بوده است) این باور غلط را حمایت کرده است که استفاده های دیگر از این قانون می تواند حتی در جاهایی که چنین وضعیت مناسبی مطرح نیست نیز آن سابقه درخشان را تکرارکند.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: کلمه however در جمله دوم نشان میدهد که برخلاف جمله قبل که از نکته ای مثبت صحبت شده است باید به طرف نکته ای منفی رفت. بنابراین، نظرما به گزینه C جلب می شود که میگوید موفقیت باعث ایجاد یک باور غلط شده است و کلا باید به طرفی در جهت پر کردن جای خالی های بعدی برویم که حکایت از موفقیت نداشتن قانون داشته باشد که این امر ما را به طرف دو گزینه E و H می برد که همان عدم موفقیت قانون را نشان میدهند و بدین تربیت بین دو بخش کل متن تناقضی را که بدنبالش هستیم را بوجود می آید.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

همسانی گرامری بخش های جمله ( Parallelism)
بخش 1: همسانی با AND
@GRE_Borzabadi
جمله زیر را بخوانید:

The potter added a temper to the clay, a substance that helped reduce shrinkage, dryness, and FRAGILE.

این جمله یک مشکل بزرگ دارد و آن این است که کلمه " "fragile یک صفت است در حالی که باید با کلمات دیگری که با and با هم وصل شده باشند و اسم هستند همسانی گرامر داشته باشد. بنابراین شکل درست جمله به قرار زیر است.

The potter added a temper to the clay, a substance that helped reduce shrinkage, dryness, and FRAGILITY.


توجه: برخی اوقات هنگامی که ما با and اجزای جمله را (بویژه وقتی تعداد اجزا از دوتا بیشتر می شود) به هم وصل می کنیم، در نگه داشتن هسانی گرامری بین این اجزا دچار اشتباه می شویم. در مثال های زیر اجزای مختلفی که با and وصل می شوند، آورده شده است. جمله ها را به دقت بخوانید و توجه کنید که ساختار گرامری تمام اجزایی که با and به هم وصل شده اند همسان میباشند.

Parallel Patterns Examples
NOUNS:
The variety of trees, plants, flowers, AND shrubs gave the yard the illusion of an enchanted garden.

PRESENT TENSE VERBS:
Once you plan, draft, AND revise your essay, submit it to your instructor for additional feedback.

PAST TENSE VERBS:
At last night’s meeting, we discussed debated, developed, AND generated ideas that would move the company into the next century.

ADJECTIVES:
After the trial period, the manager found her competent, reliable, respectful, AND trustworthy.

ADVERBS:
He worked on the project cautiously, conscientiously, AND responsibly.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES:
In my panic, I search for my research paper in my room, under my bed, AND in my car.

VERBAL PHRASES:
Infinitive Glen expected to accomplish three things in college: to develop his communication skills, to learn a profession, AND to meet people.

GERUND:
Writing poetry, singing karaoke, dancing salsa, AND skiing are his favorite pastimes.

PARTICIPLE:
Poorly written, unorganized, AND filled with grammatical errors, his report received much criticism at the meeting.

DEPENDENT CLAUSES:
How she left, where she went, AND whom she met remained a mystery to all.

INDEPENDENT CLAUSES:
The president’s plan faced three major obstacles: his Cabinet had no input in the planning, his party did not support it, AND the taxpayers did not understand it.

@GRE_Borzabadi


تمرین: بخش ناهمسان در جملات زیر را پیدا و آنها را تصحیح کنید.


1. As a journalist in the Middle East, Janet Trujillo observed direct combat, civilian casualties, and reporting on civilians’ daily hardships.

2. Three elements are particularly crucial when writing a comparison or contrast essay: maintaining a focus, to write to a specific audience, and providing enough detail to be convincing.

3. The equipment may be leased by the week, by the month, or the customer could pay on a yearly plan.

4. She believes that it is necessary to stay healthy and this is not possible without exercising.

5. Destroying his marriage, alienating his children, and quit his job, Greg soon fell into a state of despair.




Answer key:

1. As a journalist in the Middle East, Janet Trujillo observed direct combat, civilian casualties, and civilians’ daily hardships.

2. Three elements are particularly crucial when writing a comparison or contrast essay: maintaining a focus, writing to a specific audience, and providing enough detail to be convincing.

3. The equipment may be leased by the week, by the month, or by a yearly plan.

4. She believes that it is necessary to stay healthy and that this is not possible without exercising.

5. Destroying his marriage, alienating his children, and quitting his job, Greg soon fell into a state of despair.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

China's rapidly growing population is the main threat facing large carnivores in the People's Republic. Increasingly policies aimed at limiting population growth have been (i) _____; nevertheless, the country's vast size and the isolation of many of its regions mean that human populations in areas where large carnivores still occur (ii) _____ . This human pressure has (iii) _____ the south China tiger.

Blank (i)
A. modified
B. de-emphasized
C. implemented

Blank (ii)
D. could start to decline
E. can grow unchecked
F. have stabilized

Blank (iii)
G. celebrated
H. doomed
I. bypassed

@GRE_Borzabadi

MODIFY (V.): تغییر برای بهتر کردن – اصلاح کردن
If you modify something, you change it slightly, usually in order to improve it.
Example: The club members did agree to modify their recruitment policy.

DE-EMPHASIZE (V.): از تاکید انداختن – تاکید نکردن
If you de-emphasize something, you reduce the importance or prominence given to it.
Example: The university de-emphasized intercollegiate football.

IMPLEMENT (V.): اجرا کردن – انجام دادن
If you implement something such as a plan, you ensure that what has been planned is done.
Example: The government promised to implement a new system to control financial loan institutions.

DECLINE (V.): کاهش یافتن
If something declines, it becomes less in quantity, importance, or strength.
Example: The number of staff has declined from 217,000 to 114,000.

UNCHECKED (PP.): کنترل نشده – مهار نشده
If something harmful or undesirable is left unchecked, nobody controls it or prevents it from growing or developing.
Example: If left unchecked, weeds will flourish.

STABILIZE (V.): باثبات یا پایدار شدن یا کردن
Example: The country's population has stabilized at 3.2 million.
Example: The government's efforts to stabilize prices have not succeeded.

CELEBRATE (V.): جشن گرفتن
If you celebrate, you do something enjoyable because of a special occasion or to mark someone's success.
Example: Tom celebrated his 24th birthday two days ago.
DOOM (V.): به سرنوشت بدی دچار کردن – دچار عاقبت بد کردن
If a fact or event dooms someone or something to a particular fate, it makes certain that they are going to suffer in some way.
Example: That argument was the turning point for their marriage, and the one which doomed it to failure.

BYPASS (V.): ، دور زدن، از میان‌بر رفتن سلسله مراتب را طی نکردن، نادیده انگاشتن
If you bypass someone or something that you would normally have to get involved with, you ignore them, often because you want to achieve something more quickly.
Example: The workers decided to bypass the foreman and go directly to the boss.

Correct answer: C – E – H

@GRE_Borzabadi


China's rapidly growing population is the main threat facing large carnivores in the People's Republic. Increasingly policies aimed at limiting population growth have been IMPLEMENTED; nevertheless, the country's vast size and the isolation of many of its regions mean that human populations in areas where large carnivores still occur CAN GROW UNCHECKED . This human pressure has DOOMED the south China tiger.


ترجمه: جمعیت سریعا در حال افزایش چین تهدید اصلی پیش روی حیوانات گوشتخوار بزرگ جثه جمعموری خلق چین است. سیاست هایی که هدفشان محدود کردن رشد جمعیت است به طور فزاینده ای در حال اجرا است. علیرغم این کارها، وسعت عظیم این کشور و پرت افتادگی بسیاری از مناطق آن، به این معنی است که جمعیت انسانی در مناطقی که حیوانات گوشتخوار بزرگ جثه هستند، میتواند کنترل نشده رشد کند. این فشار جمعیت انسانی ببر جنوب چین را به نابودی کشانده است.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: در بخش اول، رابطه علت و معلولی وجود دارد. علت: جمعیت دارد شدید رشد می کند معلول: باید سیاست های کنترل جمعیت اجرا شود. برای کردن جای خالی دوم به کلمه nevertheless توجه می کنیم. این کلمه نشان میدهد که باید چیزی خلاف نتیجه ای که مورد انتظار سیاست کنترل جمعیت بوده روی داده باشد، یعنی جمعیت کنترل نشده رشد می کند. بخش های "وسعت عظیم این سرزمین" و "دورافتادگی بسیاری از مناطق آن" ( که امکان کنترل را از بین می برد) نیز درستی گزینه دوم را تایید میکنند. برای جای خالی سوم اگر به عبارت This human pressure توجه کنیم، با توجه به این که این عبارت واژه "فشار" را در بر دارد نشان می دهد که باید در شرایط بد قرار دادن را برای گزینه سوم انتخاب کنیم.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.
Select TWO answer Choices.

In matters of taste, the art patron and collector Peggy Guggenheim was ______: she was for the strangest, the most surprising, the most satisfying, the best, the unique.
A. neophyte
B. novice
C. realist
D. extremist
E. pragmatist
F. zealot
@GRE_Borzabadi

NEOPHYTE (N.): تازه کار – نو وارد
A neophyte is someone who is new to a particular activity. (FORMAL)
Example: Because I have very little computer experience, I am a neophyte when it comes to working with most software programs.

NOVICE (N.): تازه کار – نو وارد
A novice is someone who has been doing a job or other activity for only a short time and so is not experienced at it.
Example: I'm a novice at these things, Lieutenant. You're the professional.

REALIST (N.): واقع بین – واقع گرا
A realist is someone who recognizes and accepts the true nature of a situation and tries to deal with it in a practical way.
Example: Despite all the fantasies he devised, Levine, who died Tuesday at 83, was a realist.

EXTREMIST (N.): افراطی
An extremist is a person who holds extreme political or religious views, especially one who advocates illegal, violent, or other extreme action because they try to bring about political change by using violent or extreme methods.
Example: He said the country needed a strong intelligence service to counter espionage, terrorism and foreign extremists.

PRAGMATIST (N.): عمل گرا – واقع بین
A Pragmatist thinks of or deals with problems in a practical way, rather than by using theory or abstract principles. (FORMAL)
Example: As a pragmatist, I do not support the idea of establishing a permanent base on the moon; we do not have the potential yet.

ZEALOT (N.): افراطی
If you describe someone as a zealot, you think that their views and actions are very extreme, especially in following a particular political or religious belief.
Example: The political zealot walked over a thousand miles to get people to sign his petition.

Correct answer: D – F
@GRE_Borzabadi

In matters of taste, the art patron and collector Peggy Guggenheim was EXTREMIST / ZEALOT: she was for the strangest, the most surprising, the most satisfying, the best, the unique.


ترجمه: در امور مربوط به سلیقه، آن کلکسیونرو حامی هنری خانم پگی گانهیم یک افراطی بود: او همیشه به دنبال عجیب ترین، تعجب انگیزترین، اقناع کننده ترین، بهترین، چیزی خاص بود.



توضیح: در بخش دوم جمله از صفت عالی (ترین) استفاده شده است که نشان میدهد این فرد به کمتر از حد نهایی رضایت نمی داده است که این همان خصلت افراد افراطی است. به واقع متن سوال، کلمه ای را که باید در جای خالی قرار گیرد برای ما تعریف کرده است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

برای سوالاتی که یک جای خالی و شش گزینه دارند باید دو گزینه را به عنوان جواب درست انتخاب کرد. این دو گزینه باید مترادف و یا آنقدر از نظر معنایی نزدیک باشند که وقتی جای یکدیگر در جمله بکار میروند معنی جمله را عوض نکنند.
Select TWO answer Choices.

Science is arguably a very high-minded pursuit, but that is not to say that all of its practitioners are_____, as numerous articles alleging overly generous pharmaceutical industry payments to medical researchers have tried to show.
A. conventional
B. clever
C. unimpeachable
O. ingenious
E. blameless
F. predictable
@GRE_Borzabadi

CONVENTIONAL (ADJ.): سنتی - مرسوم
Someone who is conventional has behavior or opinions that are ordinary and normal.
Example: Unlike her sister dress who got married in an unusual dress, Karen is a conventional woman who chose a simple white wedding dress.

CLEVER (ADJ.): زرنگ – با هوش
Someone who is clever is intelligent and able to understand things easily or plan things well.
Example: Alex is a clever 14-year-old who already gets paid to help people with their computer problems.

UNIMPEACHABLE (ADJ.): بی عیب و نقص – بی ایراد
If you describe someone as unimpeachable, you mean that they are completely honest and reliable. (FORMAL)
Example: He said all five were men of unimpeachable character.

INGENIOUS (ADJ.): زرنگ – با هوش
Something that is ingenious is very clever and involves new ideas, methods, or equipment.
Example: That ingenious man was one to whom his colleagues referred to find solutions to their problems

BLAMELESS (ADJ.): بی عیب و نقص – بی ایراد
Someone who is blameless has not done anything wrong.
Example: He is one of our true warriors; fearless and blameless.

PREDICTABLE (ADJ.): قابل پیشبینی
Someone who is predictable always behaves or occurs in the way expected
Example: the characters in the movie are stereotyped and extremely predictable

Correct answer: C – E

@GRE_Borzabadi

Science is arguably a very high-minded pursuit, but that is not to say that all of its practitioners are UNIMPEACHABLE/BLAMELESS, as numerous articles alleging overly generous pharmaceutical industry payments to medical researchers have tried to show.

ترجمه: علم قطعا کاری والامرتبه است، ولی همانطور که مقالات متعددی که از پرداخت های فوق العاده بالای صنعت داروسازی به محقیقین پزشکی حکایت می کنند،نیز سعی دارند نشان دهند، اینطورهم نیست که بگوییم که تمام دانشمندان بی عیب هستند.

توضیح: در این جمله تضاد وجود دارد. اول میگوید علم والامرتبه و روحانی است و بنابراین متضاد آن این است که دانشمندان بی عیب هم نیستند. ضمنا بخش آخر متن که به مقالات متعددی اشاره میکند، انتخاب ما را تایید می نماید، چون در این بخش نویسنده می گوید مقالات متعددی دارند نشان مید هند که شرکت های داروسازی مبالغ گزافی به محققین پرداخت میکنند که این امر را که این افراد، افرادی مادی ( یعنی بی عیب نیستند که فقط اهداف روحانی را دنبال کنند) را صحه میگذارد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Politicians who invoke the founders of the United States in support of their views seem to imply that the founders consistently concurred in their own views when in reality they were a highly ______ group of thinkers.
A. erudite
B. innovative
C. predictable
D. contentious
E. methodical

@GRE_Borzabadi

ERUDITE (ADJ.): فرهیخته
If you describe someone as erudite, you mean that they have or show great academic knowledge. You can also use erudite to describe something such as a book or a style of writing. (FORMAL)
Example: Many children with verbal processing difficulty go on to be-come gifted interpreters of literature or become erudite in philosophy or social sciences.

INNOVATIVE (ADJ.): نوآور
An innovative person introduces changes and new ideas.
Example: He was one of the most creative and innovative engineers of his generation.

PREDICTABLE (ADJ.):قابل پیش بینی
]f something or someone is predictable, you know what will happen or what they will do – sometimes used to show disapproval
Example: He's usu¬ally very predictable but he surprises everyone once in a while with something totally off the wall.

CONTENTIOUS (ADJ.): مجادله گر چالشگر-
A contentious person seems to like arguing and disagreeing with other people. (FORMAL)
Example: While my grandfather was adored by many people, quite a few others found him to be a contentious man.

METHODICAL (ADJ.): دقیق و منظم
If you describe someone as methodical, you mean that they do things carefully, thoroughly, and in order.
Example: Da Vinci was methodical in his research, carefully recording his observations and theories.


Correct answer: D

@GRE_Borzabadi

Politicians who invoke the founders of the United States in support of their views seem to imply that the founders consistently concurred in their own views when in reality they were a highly INOVATIVE group of thinkers.

ترجمه: سیاستمدارانی که برای حمایت از نظرات خود به پایه گذاران ایالات متحده متوسل می شوند بنظر می رسد که غیرمستقیم میگویند که این پایه گذاران همواره در نظراتشان با هم توافق داشتند درحالیکه در واقعیت آنها گروهی از متفکران بسیار چالشگر بودند.

توضیح: در این متن تضا د وجود دارد. قسمت اول متن می گوید که که سیاستمداران بر این باور بودند که پایه گذاران ایالات متحده گروهی متحد و موافق بودند در حالی که در واقعیت اینطور نبود و بنابراین گزینه "چالشگر" درست است و همدیگر را به چالش می کشیدند.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Barring the discovery of new letters, hidden diaries, or the like, fresh information about eminent people is hard to find because their lives have been so intensely ______.
A. ridiculed
B. scrutinized
C. admired
D. embellished
E. underrated
@GRE_Borzabadi

BARRING (Preposition): صرف نظر از – به استثناء
You use barring to indicate that the person, thing, or event that you are mentioning is an exception to your statement; except for; if not for.
Example: Barring accidents, I believe they will succeed.

RIDICULE (V.): مسخره کردن
If you ridicule someone or ridicule their ideas or beliefs, you make fun of them in an unkind way.
Example: After spilling coffee on his shirt, he knew his co-workers would ridicule him.

SCRUTINIZE (V.): بدقت بررسی کردن – مورد موشکافی قرار دادن
If you scrutinize something, you examine it very carefully, often to find out some information from it or about it.
Example: Because of recent terror attacks, the airline screeners closely scrutinize all bags that are going on board airplanes.

ADMIRE (V.): تحسین کردن – ستایش کردن
If you admire someone or something, you like and respect them very much.
Example: It’s hard not to admire such an amazing painter.

EMBELLISH (V.): 1. تزیین کردن 2. شاخ و برگ دادن
1. If something is embellished with decorative features or patterns, it has those features or patterns on it and they make it look more attractive.
Example: If you want to make your shoes look new, you can always embellish them with some bows or buckles.
2. If you embellish a story, you make it more interesting by adding details which may be untrue.
Example: Dan doesn’t trust the news media because he believes that most reports embellish the facts.

UNDERRATE (V.): دست کم گرفتن
If you underrate someone or something, you do not recognize how clever, important, or significant they are.
Example: We women have a lot of good business skills, although we tend to underrate ourselves.

@GRE_Borzabadi


Barring the discovery of new letters, hidden diaries, or the like, fresh information about eminent people is hard to find because their lives have been so intensely SCRUTINIZED.

ترجمه: اگر کشف نامه های جدید، دفترچه های خاطرات مخفی، و مانند اینها را کنار بگذاریم، یافتن اطلاعات جدید در باره اشخاص برجسته دشوار است چون زندگی این افراد کامل موشکافی شده است.


توضیح: رابطه موجود بین مندرجات جمله، رابطه علت و معلولی است. معلول آن است که میگوید "سخت است اطلاعات تازه ای راجع به زندگی اشخاص برجسته پیدا کرد. علت این معلول هنگامی بدست می آید که بگویم زندگی این افراد کاملا موشکافی و بررسی شده است و بنابراین چیزی جدید برای یافتن وجود ندارد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Scholarly works on detective stories often begin with (i) _____, suggesting that there is something vaguely wrong with adults who spend their time reading such fiction and certainly something (ii) _____ those who devote energy to its analysis.

Blank (i)
A. chronologies
B. apologies
C. synopses

Blank (ii)
D. awry in
E. astute about
F. courageous about

@GRE_Borzabadi


CHRONOLOGY (N.): ذکر رویدادها به ترتیب تاریخ وقوع) گاهشماری، رویداد نگاری)
The chronology of a series of past events is the times at which they happened in the order in which they happened.
Example: The book includes a chronology of his life and works.

APOLOGY (N.): معذرت – عذرخواهی
An apology is something that you say or write in order to tell someone that you are sorry that you have hurt them or caused trouble for them.
Example: An apology for passengers for any inconvenience caused

SYNOPSIS (N.): خلاصه
A synopsis is a summary of a longer piece of writing or work.
Example: A synopsis of the play was provided for the audience.

AWRY (ADJ.): غلط – ناجور – کج
If something goes awry, it does not happen in the way it was planned.
Example: She was in a fury over a plan that had gone awry.
If something is awry, it is not in its normal or proper position. (WRITTEN)
Example: His dark hair was all awry.

ASTUTE (ADJ.): با هوش – با ذکاوت
If you describe someone as astute, you think they show an understanding of behavior and situations, and are skilful at using this knowledge to their own advantage.
Example: She was astute enough to realize that what Jack wanted was her money.

COURAGEOUS (ADJ.): شجاع
Someone who is courageous shows bravery or courage.
Example: I hope people will be courageous enough to speak out against this injustice.


Correct answer: B - D


@GRE_Borzabadi

Scholarly works on detective stories often begin with APOLOGIES suggesting that there is something vaguely wrong with adults who spend their time reading such fiction and certainly something AWRY IN those who devote energy to its analysis.

ترجمه: نوشته های علمی در باره داستانهای پلیسی اغلب با عذرخواهی شروع می شوند که این را می رساند که بزرگسالانی که وقت خود را به خواندن این نوع ادبیات می گذرانند انگار کار غلطی انجام می دهند و همین اینکه کار کسانی که انرژی خودر را به تحلیل این نوع ادبیات می گذارنند کار غلطی است.


توضیح: جمله حالت علت و معلولی دارد. در قسمت بعد از جای خالی اول، متن اشاره میکند که به نظر میرسد "بزرگسالانی که وقت خود را به خواندن این نوع ادبیات می گذرانند انگار کار غلطی انجام می دهند." برای کار غلط خوب باید معذرت خواهی کرد. در بخش بعدی اشاره میشود به کسانی که "انرژی خود را به تحلیل این نوع ادبیات می گذارنند." خوب کلمه ربط AND نشانگر آن است که چیزی مشابه مطلب قبلی میخواهد بیاید، یعنی اینکه این افرادی که این ادبیات را بررسی می کنند هم که کار علطی انجام میدهندف که این امر بار دیگر انتخاب برای گزینه اول را باز هم تایید بیشتر می کند.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

A certain amount of theoretical frenzy about comics today is (i) _____. After all, similar frenzies have been in other art forms in periods of their rapid development, for instance, the debates about painting that roiled Renaissance Italy. But such intellectual (ii) _____ rarely precedes creative glory. On the contrary, it commonly indicates that an artistic (iii) _____, having been made and recognized, is over, and that a process of increasing strained emulation and diminishing returns has set in.
Blank (i)
A. understandable
B. unprecedented
C. perplexing

Blank (ii)
D. torpor
E. conservatism
D. arousal

Blank (iii)
F. pitfall
G. tradition
I. breakthrough

@GRE_Borzabadi

UNDERSTANDABLE (ADJ.): معقول – پذیرفتنی
Something understandable is to be expected; natural, reasonable, or forgivable
Example: Having fears before one has a surgical operation is understandable.

UNPRECEDENTED (ADJ.): بی سابقه – تکرار نشده
If something is unprecedented, it has never happened before.
Example: The new government took the unprecedented step of releasing confidential correspondence


PERPLEXING (ADJ.): گیج کننده – متحیرکننده
If you find something perplexing, you do not understand it or do not know how to deal with it.
Example: A person who has not studied German can form no idea of what a perplexing language it is.

TORPOR (N.): رخوت – سستی – بی حالی
Torpor is the state of being completely inactive mentally or physically, for example because of illness or laziness. (FORMAL)
Example: The sick person gradually falls into a torpor.

CONSERVATISM (N.): محافظه کاری
Conservatism is unwillingness to accept changes and new ideas.
Example: His support of conservatism came from the belief that the government should not have much involvement in people’s everyday lives.

AROUSAL (N.): برانگیختگی – شور و هیجان
Arousal is a state in which you feel excited or very alert, for example as a result of fear, stress, or anger.
Example: Thinking angry thoughts can provoke strong physiological arousal.

PITFALL (N.) نقیصه – اشکال
The pitfalls involved in a particular activity or situation are the things that may go wrong or may cause problems.
ٍExample: He also points out that forward planning can help avoid stressful pitfalls.

TRADITION (N.): سنت
A tradition is a custom or belief that has existed for a long time.
Example: Mary has carried on the family tradition of giving away plants.

BREAKTHROUGH (N.): دستاورد- پیشرفت
A breakthrough is an important development or achievement.
Example: The medical team made a major breakthrough in the fight against AIDS.


Correct answer: A – F – I


@GRE_Borzabadi


A certain amount of theoretical frenzy about comics today is UNDERSTANDABLE After all, similar frenzies have been in other art forms in periods of their rapid development, for instance, the debates about painting that roiled Renaissance Italy. But such intellectual AROUSAL rarely precedes creative glory. On the contrary, it commonly indicates that an artistic BREAKTHROUGH having been made and recognized is over, and that a process of increasing strained emulation and diminishing returns has set in.

ترجمه: مقدار معینی از هیجان تئوریک در باره کارهای فکاهی معقول است. به هر حال، هیجاناتی مشابه در اشکال هنری دیگر در دوره های تحولات سریع آن هنرها موجود بوده اند، به عنوان مثال مناظره هایی در باره نقاشی که ایتالیای دوران رنسانس را تکان داد.اما چنین برانگیختگی روشنفکری به ندرت قبل از شکوه خلاقانه می آید. برعکس، این هیجان غالبا نشانگر آن است که دستاوردی هنری که بدست آمده و به رسمیت شناخته شده، عمرش به انتها رسیده و نیز نشانگر آن است که فرآیند تقلید دشوار و فزاینده ودوران کم شدن دستاوردها حاکم شده است.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: جمله بعد از جمله ای که جای خالی اول را در بر دارد میگوید هیجانات مشابه در زمینه های دیگر هنری وجود داشته است، که این امر به ما نشان میدهد که هیجان مربوط به کارهای فکاهی هم چیزی خلاف معمول نیست یعنی معقول است. برای جای خالی دوم کلمه such نشان میدهد که اشاره به کلمه کلیدی جملات قبل یعنی همان "هیجان" است. برای جای خالی سوم کافی است که به تضاد موجود در جمله آخر توجه کنیم، یعنی باید کلمه مخالف تقلید پیدا کنیم که همان کلمه "دستاورد"( که حاصل خلاقیت است) مورد نظر است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Progressive and reactionary populist movements are not necessarily _____: each may, and usually does, possess features of the other.
A. dichotomous
B. untenable
C. unsustainable
D. contradictory
E. subversive
F. efficacious

@GRE_Borzabadi

DICHOTOMOUS (ADJ.): متفاوت ، متضاد
If there is a dichotomy between two things, there is a very great difference or opposition between them. (FORMAL)
Example: His dichotomy of heaven and hell became an excellent essay on the contrast between paradise and eternal suffering.

UNTENABLE (ADJ.): توجیه ناپذیر ، غیرقابل دفاع
An argument, theory, or position that is untenable cannot be defended successfully against criticism or attack.
Example: The mayor’s proposal is untenable and will not gain the support of the city council.

UNSUSTAINABLE (ADJ.): غیر قابل تحمل ، تاب نیاوردنی
A unsustainable plan, method, or system cannot continue at the same rate or level of activity without any problem.
Example: The Afghan government is almost totally funded by the subsidies of donor governments, a situation that clearly is unsustainable.

CONTRADICTORY (ADJ.): مغایر ، متناقض
If two or more facts, ideas, or statements are contradictory, they state or imply that opposite things are true.
Example: The points he mentioned in his lecture, were so contradictory that we couldn’t conclude what is the final solution.

SUBVERSIVE (ADJ.):برانداز
Something that is subversive is intended to weaken or destroy a political system or government.
Example: The government closely monitors subversive organizations to see if they pose a threat to the country.

EFFICACIOUS (ADJ.): ثمربخش ، مفید
Something that is efficacious is effective. (FORMAL)
Example: Yoga is very efficacious at reducing stress.


Correct answer: A , D

@GRE_Borzabadi

Progressive and reactionary populist movements are not necessarily DICHOTOMOUS, CONTRADICTORY: each may, and usually does, possess features of the other.

ترجمه: جنبش های پیشرو و جنبشهای عوام گرا و ارتجاعی الزاما متفاوت نیستند: هرکدام ممکن است و معمولا اینطور است که ویژگی های از یکدیگر را دارند

توضیح: در این متن رابطه علت و معلولی ((cause and effect وجود دارد. وجود علامت دو نقطه بعد از جای خالی ، کلمه لازم برای جای خالی را توضیح میدهد. از آنجا که که در قسمت آخر جمله گفته شده این دو جنبش ویژگی های هم را دارند (cause)، بنابراین نتیجه میگیریم این دو جنبش الزاما متفاوت نیستند و جواب گزینه هایی که معنی "متفاوت" میدهند میشود (یعنی گزینه های A و D که هم معنی نیزهم هستند.)

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

In Japanese aesthetics, especially but not only in Noh, beauty contains the idea of _____: beauty must have an air of evanescence, the intimation of its own demise.
A. transience
B. symmetry
C. decay
D. simplicity
E. balance
F. deterioration

@GRE_Borzabadi

TRANSIENCE (N.):گذرا بودن
If you talk about the transience of a situation, you mean that it lasts only a short time or is constantly changing. (FORMAL)
Example: We only value life truly when we perceive its transience and shortness.

SYMMETRY (N): تقارن
Something that has symmetry has two halves which are exactly the same in shape, design, or structure.
Example: The incredible beauty and symmetry of a snowflake shows God’s power and creativity.

DECAY (N):پوسیدگی ، زوال ، تضعیف
1. When something such as a dead body, a dead plant, or a tooth decays, it is gradually destroyed by a natural process.
Example: Sean’s dentist says that plaque buildup can cause tooth decay, which is why brushing teeth is so important.
2. If something such as a society, system, or institution decays, it gradually becomes weaker or its condition gets worse.
Example: Frank loves to impress everyone with his knowledge of the rise and decay of the Roman Empire.

SIMPLICITY (N):سادگی ، سهولت
The simplicity of something is the fact that it is not complicated and can be understood or done easily.
Example: Because of its simplicity, this test could be carried out easily by a family doctor.

BALANCE (N):تعادل ، توازن
1. Balance is the ability to remain steady when you are standing up.
Example: The medicines you are currently taking could be affecting your balance, so be careful not to fall down.
2. A balance is a situation in which all the different parts are equal in strength or importance.
Example: There was no other way to ensure that people would get the right balance of foods: equal proportion of vitamins, proteins and…

DETERIORATION (N):زوال ، بدتر شدن
If something deteriorates, it becomes worse in some way.
Example: The sudden deterioration of the weather has forced the wedding planner to move the ceremony indoors.

Correct answer: C , F

@GRE_Borzabadi

In Japanese aesthetics, especially but not only in Noh, beauty contains the idea of DECAY, DETERIORATION: beauty must have an air of evanescence, the intimation of its own demise.

ترجمه: در فلسفه زیبایی شناسی ژاپنی، به ویژه (اما نه تنها) در رقص «نو»، زیبایی دربردارنده ی ایده ی فناپذیری و زوال است: زیبایی باید رگه ای از زودگذری داشته باشد، کنایه ای از نابودی و مرگ خودش.

توضیح: دو نقطه ای (:) که بعد از جای خالی آمده نشان میدهد که آنچه بدنبال دو نقطه هست ، توصیف کلماتی است که باید در جای خالی قرار یگیرند و این توصیف بعد از دو نقطه میگوید که زیبایی باید گذرا و میرا باشد، پس زیبایی باید ایده ای از زوال و فناپذیری داشته باشد. نخست به گزینه اول یعنی (TRANSIENCE) هدایت میشویم ولی چون معادل در بین گزینه ها ندارد، دو گزینه ی C و F را انتخاب می کنیم که هم مفهوم مورد نظر را دارند و هم مترادف هستند.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

1. Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are _____: only the cave owner can share its secrets.
A. impenetrable
B. immutable
C. proprietary
D. didactic
E. self-perpetuating

@GRE_Borzabadi

IMPENETRABLE (ADJ.): نفوذ ناپذیر ، حل نشدنی ، دشوار
1. If you describe something such as a barrier or a forest as impenetrable, you mean that it is impossible or very difficult to get through.
Example: If the castle is truly impenetrable, our enemies will never gain access to the king.
2. If you describe something such as a book or theory as impenetrable, you are emphasizing that it is impossible or very hard to understand.
Example: The book she was reading was so impenetrable that she didn’t understand even a word of it.

IMMUTABLE (ADJ.): تغییر ناپذیر
Something that is immutable will never change or cannot be changed. (FORMAL)
Example: Although I tried to get the bank president to change his mind about giving me the loan, I finally realized his decision was immutable.

PROPRIETARY (ADJ.): متعلق به مالک – در ملکیت
1. Proprietary substances or products are sold under a trade name. (FORMAL)
Example: The soft drink company uses it proprietary formula to exclusively make its best selling beverage.
2. If someone has a proprietary attitude toward something, they act as though they own it. (FORMAL)
Example: Directors weren’t allowed any proprietary airs about the product they made.

DIDACTIC (ADJ.): پند آموز – آموزنده
1. Something that is didactic is intended to teach people something, especially a moral lesson. (FORMAL)
Example: The purpose of the didactic presentation was to teach us all about the dangers of cigarette smoking.
2. Someone who is didactic tells people things rather than letting them find things out or discussing things. (FORMAL)
Example: He is much more didactic in his approach and sees the teacher’s role as extremely important in the learning process.

SELF-PERPETUATING (ADJ.): تغیر ناپذیر ، ابدی
If something is self-perpetuating it has a system that prevents change and produces new things that are very similar to the old ones
Example: The fighting between the different groups has become a self-perpetuating spiral of death and hatred.


Correct answer: C

@GRE_Borzabadi

Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are PROPRIETARY: only the cave owner can share its secrets.

ترجمه: در بین مردم میکامبوت کشور پاپوا- گینه ی نو، افسانه ها با غارهایی خاص در ناحیه ی سپیک مرتبط هستند، و این افسانه ها انحصاری اند: فقط مالک غار میتواند اسرارش را به اشتراک بگذارد.

توضیح: قسمت اول متن میگوید که افسانه هایی مرتبط با غارها وجود دارند. در قسمت دوم جالی خالی را داریم. بعد از جای خالی علامت دو نقطه با ما میگوید آنچه بعد آمده کلمه ای را که باید در جای خالی گذاشته شود را تعیین میکند. و این قسمت، یعنی قسمت آخر، میگوید که این رازهای هر غار متعلق به صاحب غار است و بنابراین گزینه C که صاحب دار بودن افسانه های غارها را نشان میدهد، گزینه درست و با معنی است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

1. Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are _____: only the cave owner can share its secrets.
A. impenetrable
B. immutable
C. proprietary
D. didactic
E. self-perpetuating

@GRE_Borzabadi

IMPENETRABLE (ADJ.): نفوذ ناپذیر ، حل نشدنی ، دشوار
1. If you describe something such as a barrier or a forest as impenetrable, you mean that it is impossible or very difficult to get through.
Example: If the castle is truly impenetrable, our enemies will never gain access to the king.
2. If you describe something such as a book or theory as impenetrable, you are emphasizing that it is impossible or very hard to understand.
Example: The book she was reading was so impenetrable that she didn’t understand even a word of it.

IMMUTABLE (ADJ.): تغییر ناپذیر
Something that is immutable will never change or cannot be changed. (FORMAL)
Example: Although I tried to get the bank president to change his mind about giving me the loan, I finally realized his decision was immutable.

PROPRIETARY (ADJ.): متعلق به مالک – در ملکیت
1. Proprietary substances or products are sold under a trade name. (FORMAL)
Example: The soft drink company uses it proprietary formula to exclusively make its best selling beverage.
2. If someone has a proprietary attitude toward something, they act as though they own it. (FORMAL)
Example: Directors weren’t allowed any proprietary airs about the product they made.

DIDACTIC (ADJ.): پند آموز – آموزنده
1. Something that is didactic is intended to teach people something, especially a moral lesson. (FORMAL)
Example: The purpose of the didactic presentation was to teach us all about the dangers of cigarette smoking.
2. Someone who is didactic tells people things rather than letting them find things out or discussing things. (FORMAL)
Example: He is much more didactic in his approach and sees the teacher’s role as extremely important in the learning process.

SELF-PERPETUATING (ADJ.): تغیر ناپذیر ، ابدی
If something is self-perpetuating it has a system that prevents change and produces new things that are very similar to the old ones
Example: The fighting between the different groups has become a self-perpetuating spiral of death and hatred.


Correct answer: C

@GRE_Borzabadi

Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are PROPRIETARY: only the cave owner can share its secrets.

ترجمه: در بین مردم میکامبوت کشور پاپوا- گینه ی نو، افسانه ها با غارهایی خاص در ناحیه ی سپیک مرتبط هستند، و این افسانه ها انحصاری اند: فقط مالک غار میتواند اسرارش را به اشتراک بگذارد.

توضیح: قسمت اول متن میگوید که افسانه هایی مرتبط با غارها وجود دارند. در قسمت دوم جالی خالی را داریم. بعد از جای خالی علامت دو نقطه با ما میگوید آنچه بعد آمده کلمه ای را که باید در جای خالی گذاشته شود را تعیین میکند. و این قسمت، یعنی قسمت آخر، میگوید که این رازهای هر غار متعلق به صاحب غار است و بنابراین گزینه C که صاحب دار بودن افسانه های غارها را نشان میدهد، گزینه درست و با معنی است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

1. Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are _____: only the cave owner can share its secrets.
A. impenetrable
B. immutable
C. proprietary
D. didactic
E. self-perpetuating

@GRE_Borzabadi

IMPENETRABLE (ADJ.): نفوذ ناپذیر ، حل نشدنی ، دشوار
1. If you describe something such as a barrier or a forest as impenetrable, you mean that it is impossible or very difficult to get through.
Example: If the castle is truly impenetrable, our enemies will never gain access to the king.
2. If you describe something such as a book or theory as impenetrable, you are emphasizing that it is impossible or very hard to understand.
Example: The book she was reading was so impenetrable that she didn’t understand even a word of it.

IMMUTABLE (ADJ.): تغییر ناپذیر
Something that is immutable will never change or cannot be changed. (FORMAL)
Example: Although I tried to get the bank president to change his mind about giving me the loan, I finally realized his decision was immutable.

PROPRIETARY (ADJ.): متعلق به مالک – در ملکیت
1. Proprietary substances or products are sold under a trade name. (FORMAL)
Example: The soft drink company uses it proprietary formula to exclusively make its best selling beverage.
2. If someone has a proprietary attitude toward something, they act as though they own it. (FORMAL)
Example: Directors weren’t allowed any proprietary airs about the product they made.

DIDACTIC (ADJ.): پند آموز – آموزنده
1. Something that is didactic is intended to teach people something, especially a moral lesson. (FORMAL)
Example: The purpose of the didactic presentation was to teach us all about the dangers of cigarette smoking.
2. Someone who is didactic tells people things rather than letting them find things out or discussing things. (FORMAL)
Example: He is much more didactic in his approach and sees the teacher’s role as extremely important in the learning process.

SELF-PERPETUATING (ADJ.): تغیر ناپذیر ، ابدی
If something is self-perpetuating it has a system that prevents change and produces new things that are very similar to the old ones
Example: The fighting between the different groups has become a self-perpetuating spiral of death and hatred.


Correct answer: C

@GRE_Borzabadi

Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are PROPRIETARY: only the cave owner can share its secrets.

ترجمه: در بین مردم میکامبوت کشور پاپوا- گینه ی نو، افسانه ها با غارهایی خاص در ناحیه ی سپیک مرتبط هستند، و این افسانه ها انحصاری اند: فقط مالک غار میتواند اسرارش را به اشتراک بگذارد.

توضیح: قسمت اول متن میگوید که افسانه هایی مرتبط با غارها وجود دارند. در قسمت دوم جالی خالی را داریم. بعد از جای خالی علامت دو نقطه با ما میگوید آنچه بعد آمده کلمه ای را که باید در جای خالی گذاشته شود را تعیین میکند. و این قسمت، یعنی قسمت آخر، میگوید که این رازهای هر غار متعلق به صاحب غار است و بنابراین گزینه C که صاحب دار بودن افسانه های غارها را نشان میدهد، گزینه درست و با معنی است.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

1. A new television documentary focuses on one of the prime minister's defining contradiction, portraying her as a woman who cultivated an image of ______, but who liked to live grandly.
A. irascibility
B. abstemiousness
C. contentiousness
D. insouciance
E. surreptitiousness

@GRE_Borzabadi

IRASCIBILITY (N.): تندخویی - زودخشمی
People marked with irascibility often get angry very quickly.
Example: His irascibility was one reason why his family fell apart.

ABSTEMIOUSNESS (N.): میانه‌روی (به ویژه در خورد و خوراک و لذت‌ها)، اعتدال‌گرایی
People marked with abstemiousness avoid doing too much of something enjoyable such as eating or drinking. (FORMAL)
Example: Her abstemiousness in eating has made her lose a lot of weight.

CONTENTIOUSNESS (N.): نزاع طلبی – ستیزگرایی
1. A person marked with contentiousness seems to like arguing and disagreeing with other people. (FORMAL)
2. A contentious issue causes a lot of disagreement or arguments. (FORMAL)
Example: The contentiousness of two of the guests ruined the party.

INSOUCIANCE (N.): بی تفاوتی
Insouciance is lack of concern shown by someone about something which they might be expected to take more seriously. (FORMAL)
Example: He replied with characteristic insouciance: “So what?”

SURREPTITIOUSNESS (N.): پنهانی و مخفی بودن
Surreptitiousness is the state or quality of being secret. (Especially movements)
Example: The surreptitiousness of the interview prevented the press from spreading false rumors.


Correct answer: B

@GRE_Borzabadi


A new television documentary focuses on one of the prime minister's defining contradiction,
portraying her as a woman who cultivated an image of ABSTEMIOUSNESS but who liked to live grandly.

ترجمه: یک مستند تلویزیونی جدید روی یکی از تضادهای توصیف کننده ی نخست وزیر تمرکز دارد. او را به عنوان زنی نشان می دهد که به ظاهر اعتدال گرا بود، اما دوست داشت باشکوه زندگی کند.

توضیح: در بخش اول جمله کلمه contradiction گویای آن است که تضادی در خصوص رفتار نخست وزیر وجود دارد. برای دریافتن تضاد قسمت آخر جمله که بعد از but است را میخوانیم که میگوید ایشان دوست دارد باشکوه زندگی کند، بنابراین باید درجای خالی گزینه B قرار گیرد که این تضاد را ایجاد می کند.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Due to the extraordinary circumstances, British business owners found themselves in a (i)_____ position during the Second World War, forced to accept regular interference from government and to acquiesce to (ii)_____ role for labor unions in negotiating the terms and conditions of employment.


Blank (i) Blank (ii)
A. defensive D. a traditional
B. dominant E. an enhanced
C. customary F. a diminished


@GRE_Borzabadi

DEFENSIVE (ADJ.): دفاعی – پدافندی
Someone who is defensive is behaving in a way that shows they feel unsure or threatened.
Example: I was surprised by his defensive reaction to my suggestion.

DOMINANT (ADJ.): غالب – برتر
Someone or something that is dominant is more powerful, successful, influential, or noticeable than other people or things.
Example: Losing their momentum in the final quarter, the once dominant team ended up on bottom.

CUSTOMARY (ADJ.): مرسوم – رایج
Customary is used to describe things that people usually do in a particular society or in particular circumstances. (FORMAL)
Example: The customary 15 percent tip was not only expected, but required.

TRADITIONAL (ADJ.): سنتی – عرفی
Traditional customs, beliefs, or methods are ones that have existed for a long time without changing.
Example: Traditional teaching methods sometimes only succeeded in putting students off learning.

ENHANCED (ADJ.): پیشرفته از نظرارزش، کیفیت یا زیبایی
If something is enhanced, it has improved in value, quality or attractiveness
Example: Her enhanced beauty was the result of a good night’s sleep rather than makeup

DIMINISHED (ADJ.): کاسته شده –تحلیل رفته - کوچک شده
If something is diminished, it has become reduced in size, importance, or intensity.
If someone is diminished, their authority or reputation has been decreased by someone else.
Example: This drug has diminished side effects and is less harmful.
Her rude comments made me feel diminished.

Correct answer: A – E

@GRE_Borzabadi


Due to the extraordinary circumstances, British business owners found themselves in a DEFENSIVE position during the Second World War, forced to accept regular interference from government and to acquiesce to AN ENHANCED role for labor unions in negotiating the terms and conditions of employment.

ترجمه: به علت شرایط غیرمعمول، هنگام جنگ جهانی دوم صاحبان تجارت در بریتانیا خود را در موقعیتی دفاعی یافتند و مجبور به تحمل دخالت های مدام دولت بودند و نیز مجبور بودند که به نقش پر رنگ اتحادیه های کارگری در مذاکرات در باره شرایط و ضوابط استخدام رضایت بدهند.


توضیح: وجود مفهموم دخالت دولتی نشان میدهد که صاحبان تجارت در شرایط مناسبی نبودند و تنها گزینه ای مناسب این است که بگوییم در شرایط دفاع بودند ( چون دخالت دولت در تجارت نوعی حمله است). برای جای خالی دوم که نیز باید گزینه ای را انتخاب کنیم که شرایط بد صاحبان تجارت را بازهم تایید دوباره کند و چون کارفرمایان و اتحادیه های کارگری دو سوی یک رقابت هستند بنابراین باید بگوییم که نقش این اتحادیه هم قوی تر شده بود و صاحبان تجارت مجبور بودند به آن هم رضایت دهند.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The contemporary trend whereby fashion designers flout mainstream tradition is unique only in its (i)_____; earlier fashion designers experienced the same (ii) _____ impulse, albeit in a less extreme form.

Blank (i) Blank (ii)
A. subversiveness D. iconoclastic
B. culpability E. indiscriminate
C. intensity F. temperate

@GRE_Borzabadi

SUBVERSIVENESS (N): براندازی و ایجاد تغییر
Subversiveness is the tendency to weaken or change an established order, especially to undermine or overthrow an established government: subversive groups
Example: I once spent an afternoon in Berlin with a translator whose Hamlet was banned for subversiveness by the East German authorities.

INTENSITY (N): شدت ، جوش و خروش
Intense is used to describe something that is very great or extreme in strength or degree.
Example: The attack was anticipated but its intensity came as a shock.

CULPABILITY (N): تقصیر ، کوتاهی
Culpability is a state of guilt or responsibility. (FORMAL)
Example: He added there was clear culpability on the part of government for not taking action any earlier.

INDISCRIMINATE (ADJ.): بی حساب و کتاب، الابختکی
If you describe an action as indiscriminate, you are critical of it because it does not involve any careful thought or choice.
Example: The indiscriminate use of fertilizers is damaging to the environment.

ICONOCLASTIC (ADJ.): سنت شکن – ساختار شکن
If you describe someone or their words or ideas as iconoclastic, you mean that they contradict established beliefs. (FORMAL)
Example: He is an iconoclastic filmmaker who has pushed the boundaries with every film he's made.

TEMPERATE (ADJ.): معتدل ، میانه رو ، خویشتن دار
1. Temperate is used to describe a climate or place which is never extremely hot or extremely cold.
Example: The Nile Valley keeps a temperate climate throughout the year; it has such a mild climate.
2. If a person’s behavior is temperate, it is calm and reasonable, so that they do not get angry or lose their temper easily. (FORMAL)
Example: He’s such a temperate and gentle man that nothing really can make him angry.

Correct answer: B , E

@GRE_Borzabadi

The contemporary trend whereby fashion designers flout mainstream tradition is unique only in its INTENSITY; earlier fashion designers experienced the same ICONOCLASTIC impulse, albeit in a less extreme form.

ترجمه: روند معاصر که در آن طراحان مد، سنت جاری را زیر پا می گذارند، فقط در شدتی که دارد منحصر به فرد است؛ پیش تر طراحان مد همین وسوسه ی سنت شکنی را تجربه کرده بودند، هرچند در یک شکل خفیف تر.

توضیح: بخش اول می گوید طراحان مد سنت جاری طراحی را زیر پا گذاشتند. بخش دوم میگوید که طراحان مد قبلی هم چیزی مشابه را تجربه کردند که بنابراین جای خالی دوم می شود ICONOCLASTICT ، یعنی آنها هم سنت شکنی مشابه ای را تحربه کردند. پس در این ویژگی مشترک بودند. حال برای پر کردن جای خالی اول به قسمت اول متن بر میگردیم که نویسنده میخواهد وجه تمایز سنت شکنی معاصر را با سنت شکنی قبلی بگوید که بهترین گزینه از نظر معنایی همان INTENSITY است زیرا گزینه اول معنی "براندازی و تغییر" را دارد که جواب درست نیست چون این امر، وجه شباهت دو روند است نه وجه اختلاف. گزینه CULPABILITY هم نمی شود زیرا سنت شکنی، عیب و نقیصه نیست. جواب درست همان INTENSITY است که با بخش آخر جمله " هرچند در یک شکل خفیف تر" هم سازگاری دارد.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

There are two opposing theories about mountain formation and climate over the past 40 million years: either the surge of mountain building (i)…………the global cooling, or vice versa. The first of these two theories asserts that widespread mountain building cooled (ii)………… mountains and climate. For example, mountain glaciers tend to be (iii)……….. once established, they increase the reflectivity of the surface, thus lowering temperature and allowing more ice to form.


Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)
A. superseded D. disparity between G. unpredictable
B. halted E. feedback between H. static
C. caused F. complexity of I. self-perpetuating

@GRE_Borzabadi

OPPOSING (ADJ.): متضاد و متفاوت
Opposing ideas or tendencies are totally different from each other.
Example: I have a friend who has the opposing view and felt that the war was immoral.

FORMATION (N): پیدایش
The formation of something is the starting or creation of it.
Example: The formation of the new government faced with some civil wars.

SURGE (N): افزایش ناگهانی
A surge is a sudden large increase in something that has previously been steady, or has only increased or developed slowly.
Example: Specialists see various reasons for the recent surge in inflation which is not hopeful.

VICE VERSA (ADV.): برعکس
Vice versa is used to indicate that the reverse of what you have said is true.
Example: Teachers qualified to teach in England are not accepted in Scotland and vice versa.

ASSERT (V): اظهار قطعی کردن
If someone asserts a fact or belief, they state it firmly.
Example: The defendants, who continue to assert their innocence, are expected to appeal.

GLACIER (N): یخچال طبیعی
A glacier is an extremely large mass of ice which moves very slowly, often down a mountain valley.
Example: The high mountain glaciers of South America and Asia are melting at an alarming rate.

REFLECTIVITY (N): بازتاب پذیری
The ability to send back light or heat.
Example: The plate attracted everyone by its high reflectivity to show the light glowed at it.

SUPERSEDE (V): لغو یا جایگزین کردن
If something is superseded by something newer, it is replaced because it has become old-fashioned or unacceptable.
Example: Their map has since been superseded by photographic atlases, so it is not used any more.

HALT (V): متوقف کردن
When a person or a vehicle halts or when something halts them, they stop moving in the direction they were going and stand still.
Example: They halted at a short distance from the house.

CAUSE (V): باعث شدن
To cause something, usually something bad, means to make it happen.
Example: Attempts to limit family size among some minorities are likely to cause problem.

DISPARITY (N): تفاوت و تمایز
If there is a disparity between two or more things, there is a noticeable difference between them.
Example: There are obvious economic disparities between East and West Berlin.

FEEDBACK (N): بازخورد
If you get feedback on your work or progress, someone tells you how well or badly you are doing, and how you could improve. If you get good feedback you have worked or performed well.
Example: It is important for parents to receive regular feedback from teachers regarding their children's progress at school.

COMPLEXITY (N): پیچیدگی
Complexity is the state of having many different parts connected or related to each other that you understand it hard.
Example: Joshua became quite nervous when he noticed the complexity of the math problems on his final exam.

UNPREDICTABLE (ADJ.): غیر قابل پیش بینی
If you describe someone or something as unpredictable, you mean that you cannot tell what they are going to do or how they are going to behave.
Example: The weather is unpredictable and no one can guess how it is going to be.

STATIC (ADJ.): ساکن و ایستاده
Something that is static does not move or change.
Example: The number of young people obtaining qualifications has remained static or decreased.
GRE_Borzabadi

SELF-PERPETUATING (V): جاودانه کردن
If someone or something is self-perpetuating a situation, they cause themselves to continue beyond the normal limit.
Example: The committee was self-perpetuating: all it did was hold a meeting to decide when the next meeting was, and consume funds to do so.

Correct answer: C, E, I

@GRE_Borzabadi

There are two opposing theories about mountain formation and climate over the past 40
million years: either the surge of mountain building CAUSED the global cooling, or vice
versa. The first of these two theories asserts that widespread mountain building cooled
FEEDBACK BETWEEN mountains and climate. For example, mountain glaciers tend to be SELF-PERPETUATING once established, they increase the reflectivity of the surface, thus lowering temperature and allowing more ice to form.

ترجمه: دو تئوری متفاوت درباره ی پیدایش کوه ها و آب و هوا در طی چهل میلیون سال پیش وجود دارد: یا افزایش کوه زایی باعث سرمای جهانی شد یا برعکس. اولین تئوری بیان میدارد که کوه زایی گسترده، بازخورد بین کوه ها و آب و هوا را سرد کرد. برای مثال، کوه های یخچالی وقتی تثبیت می شدند، باعث ادامه بقای خود می گردیدند به این ترتیب که آنها با افزایشی انعکاس زایی سطح زمین، درجه حرارت را پایین می آوردند و بنابراین باعث ایجاد یخ بیشتر می شدند.

توضیح: جواب خالی اول را از همان جمله اول میتوان دریافت. جمله اول می گوید دو تئوری متفاوت در باره "تشکیل کوه" وجود دارد، بنابراین گزینه C درست است که به مسئله تشکیل کوه کار دارد ونه گزینه های دیگر ( که یکی متوقف شدن و دیگری جایگزین شدن معنی می دهند). جای خالی دوم را با اطلاعات موجود در جمله دوم نمیتوان پر کرد و بنابراین سراغ جای خالی سوم میرویم. در آخرین جمله سوال، که صحبت از افزایش انعکاس زایی سطح زمین، پایین آمدن درجه حرارت و تشکیل یخ میشود متوجه میشویم که بهترین گزینه I است زیرا تمام این شرایط باعث ادامه بقا کوه و افزایش کوه زایی می شود. حال سراغ جای خالی دوم میرویم و گزینه E راانتخاب میکنیم زیرا تنها در صورتی که وقتی اگر آنچه بین کوه و آب و هوا رد و بدل میشود به شکلی سرد شود، میتوان انتظار پدیده هایی که در آخر سوال آمده است را داشت. (افزایش انعکاس پذیری زمین، کاهش درجه حرارت و افزایش تشکیل یخ).


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Select TWO answer choices.

The beauty of the scientific approach is that even when individual researchers do _____bias or partiality, others can correct them using a framework of evidence on which everyone broadly agrees.
A. overreact to
B. deviate from
C. succumb to
D. recoil from
E. yield to
F. shrink from

@GRE_Borzabadi

OVERREACT TO (V.): واکنش بیش از حد نشان دادن
If you say that someone overreacts to something, you mean that they have and show more of an emotion than is necessary or appropriate.
Example: َAfter his death her wife was really upset and she overreacted to her friend’s help and shouted at her!

DEVIATE FROM (V.): منحرف شدن از
To deviate from something means to start doing something different or not planned, especially in a way that causes problems for others.
Example: Your boss will stop you as soon as you deviate from orders.

SUCCUMB TO (V.): سر فرود آوردن به ، تسلیم شدن به
If you succumb to temptation or pressure, you do something that you want to do, or that other people want you to do, although you feel it might be wrong. (FORMAL)
Example: The Minister said his country would never succumb to pressure.


RECOIL FROM (V.): پس زدن ،شانه خالی کردن از
If you recoil from doing something or recoil at the idea of something, you refuse to do it or accept it because you dislike it so much.
Example: She recoils from accepting his marriage offer because she doesn’t like him.

YIELD TO (V.): تسلیم شدن به
If you yield to someone or something, you stop resisting them. (FORMAL)
Example: Oscar Wilde once stated that the only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it.

SHRINK FROM (V.): شانه خالی کردن از ، امتناع کردن از
If you do not shrink from a task or duty, you do it even though it is unpleasant or dangerous.
Example: As a soldier in the war, he never shrank from the dangerous duties he was ordered to undertake.

Correct answer: C – E

@GRE_Borzabadi

The beauty of the scientific approach is that even when individual researchers do SUCCUMB TO / YIELD TO bias or partiality, others can correct them using a framework of evidence on which everyone broadly agrees.

ترجمه : زیبایی دستاورد های علمی این است که حتی وقتی محققانی تسلیم پیش داوری یا جانبداری میشوند ، دیگران می توانند با استفاده از چهار چوبی از شواهد که همه به طور کلی با آن ها موافق است ، آن افراد را اصلاح کند.

توضیح : چون در قسمت بعد از جای خالی، ترکیب "correct them" را داریم، نتیجه میگیریم که کاری که محققانی در ارتباط با پیش داوری یا جانبداری انجام میدهند باید کار غلطی باشد. در علم باید از پیش داوری یا جانبداری پرهیز کرد، پس حتما این محققان تسلیم پیش داوری یا جانبداری می شوند.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Select TWO answer choices.

Far from _______ innovations, as the patent system was designed to do, the patenting of concepts such as gene sequences gives individuals and corporations a legal choke to hold over ideas that should be useful to all.
A. spurring
B. recognizing
C. codifying
D. acknowledging
E. fostering
F. cataloging

@GRE_Borzabadi

SPUR (V.): موجب شدن – باعث شدن
If something spurs a change or event, it makes it happen faster or sooner.
Example: The administration may put more emphasis on spurring economic growth.

Recognize (V.): به رسمیت شناختن، قبول کردن
If someone says that they recognize something, they acknowledge that it exists or that it is true.
Many parties declined to recognize the new government and rejected its legitimacy

CODIFY (V.): مدون کردن، سازماندهی کردن
If you codify a set of rules, you define them or present them in a clear and ordered way.
Example: Institutions have regulations, codified systems of behavior, organizational flow charts, and job descriptions.

ACKNOWLEDGE (V.): اذعان کردن، قبول کردن
If you acknowledge a fact or a situation, you accept or admit that it is true or that it exists.
Example: The governor has acknowledged that there have been errors in his financial statements.

FOSTER (V.): پروراندن، تقویت کردن
To foster something such as an activity or idea means to help it to develop.
Example: Social networks, for example, might be fostered for those at risk of becoming isolated.

CATALOGUE (V.): فهرست بندی کردن
To catalogue things means to make a list of them.
Example: The Royal Greenwich Observatory was founded to observe and catalogue the stars.

Correct answer: A, E



@GRE_Borzabadi

Far from SPURRING/ FOSTERING innovations, as the patent system was designed to do, the patenting of concepts such as gene sequences gives individuals and corporations a legal choke to hold over ideas that should be useful to all.

ترجمه: بجای تقویت نوآوریها، که هدف طراحی سیستم ثبت و حمایت از اختراع است، ثبت و حمایت از مفاهیمی همچون توالی ژن ها ، دریچه کنترل قانونی را به افراد و شرکت ها می دهد که آنها از طریق آن، افکاری که می تواند برای همه مفید باشند را در اختیار خود نگه میدارند.


توضیح: عبارت " "Far fromدر ابتدای جمله ( که تحت الفظی معنی " دور باد از اینکه" را میدهد) نشانی از تضاد بین دو بخش جمله است. در بخش دوم جمله میگوید که سیستم ثبت و حمایت از اختراع مانع گسترش افکار توسط افراد و شرکت ها می شود. گزینه هایی که ضمن مترادف بودن، مفهوم متضاد را بوجود می آورند همان گزینه¬های A و E هستند که همان مفهوم متضاد یعنی " بجای تقویت نوآوریها، که هدف طراحی سیستم ثبت و حمایت از اختراع است" را ایجاد می کنند.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

What once seemed a quixotic vision the "Subway to the Sea," connecting Union Station in downtown Los Angeles to the Pacific Ocean in Santa Monica no longer seems quite so _______.
A. impracticable
B. prescient
C. banal
D. viable
E. beneficial

@GRE_Borzabadi

IMPRACTICABLE (ADJ.): اجراء نشدنی – غیر عملی
If something such as a course of action is impracticable, it is impossible to do.
Example: The oldest and most experienced men did not consider the surprising proposal utterly impossible and impracticable.

PRESCIENT (ADJ): پیش گو– غیب گو
If you say that someone was prescient, you mean that they were able to know or predict what was going to happen in the future.
Example: His prescient forecasts for a return to growth this year have surprisingly turned out to be correct.

BANAL (ADJ.): پیش پا افتاده- تکرای و خسته کننده
If you describe something as banal, you do not like it because you think that it is so ordinary that it is not at all interesting.
Example: The conversation was banal, and it led to a lot of people yawning and frowning throughout the incident.

VIABLE (ADJ.): شدنی – عملی
Seeds and eggs are described as viable if they are capable of developing into living beings without outside help.
Example: A detailed business plan will help you to determine if this venture is viable before you invest any money in it.

BENEFICIAL (ADJ.): سودمند
Something that is beneficial helps people or improves their lives; useful.
Example: The law seemed beneficial to society, but studies showed it really didn’t help much.

@GRE_Borzabadi

Correct Answer: A

What once seemed a quixotic vision the "Subway to the Sea," connecting Union Station in downtown Los Angeles to the Pacific Ocean in Santa Monica no longer seems quite so IMPRACTICABLE.


ترجمه: چیزی که زمانی طرحی غیر عملی بنظر می رسید یعنی طرح " مترو به دریا" که ایستگاه یونیون در مرکز شهر لوسانجلس را به اقیانوس آرام در سانتا مونیکا وصل کند، دیگر آنقدرها هم غیرعملی به نظر نمی آید.

توضیح: در جمله تضاد مشهود است. قسمت اول جمله میگوید که طرح اتصال دو منطقه زمانی غیر عملی بنظر می رسید. در قسمت بعدی به زمان حال اشاره دارد و می گوید این طرح دیگر آنقدرها هم —---— (جای خالی ) نیست. تضاد در امکان پذیری یک طرح در گذشته و حال است و بنابراین درجالی خالی باید "غیرعملی" را بگذاریم.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Slight but ________ variation in the timing of the star's pulses led astronomers to deduce that it was being pulled backwards and forwards by three planets orbiting around it.
A. subtle
B. regular
C. undetectable
D. inconsequential
E. explicable

@GRE_Borzabadi

SUBTLE (ADJ.): نامحسوس - ظریف
Something that is subtle is not immediately obvious or noticeable.
Example: His sense of humor is quite subtle, so sometimes it's hard to know if he is joking or if he's serious.

REGULAR (ADJ.): همیشگی – دائمی
Regular events have equal amounts of time between them, so that they happen, for example, at the same time each day or each week.
Example: We're going to be meeting there on a regular basis.

UNDETECTABLE (ADJ.): غیر قابل تشخیص - غیرقابل کشف
Something that is undetectable cannot be noticed or discovered.
Example: A pebble is nearly undetectable due to its small size and make-up.

INCONSEQUENTAL (ADJ.): بی‌اهمیت
Something that is inconsequential is not important.
Example: Seemingly inconsequential details can sometimes contain significant clues.

EXPLICABLE (ADJ.): قابل توضیح
If something is explicable, it can be explained and understood because it is logical or sensible. (FORMAL)
Example: The older I grow, the stranger and less explicable the world appears to me.

Correct answer: B
@GRE_Borzabadi

Slight but REGULAR variation in the timing of the star's pulses led astronomers to deduce that it was being pulled backwards and forwards by three planets orbiting around it.

ترجمه: تغییرات جزئی اما همیشگی در زمان‌بندی پالس‌های ستارگان، منجمان را به این نتیجه رساند که این ستاره توسط سه سیاره‌ای که به دور آن می‌چرخند به عقب و جلو کشیده می‌شود.

توضیح: قاعدتا برای اینکه منجمین به نتیجه برسند، تغییرات نمی‌توانند بی‌اهمیت، غیرقابل کشف و یا نامحسوس باشند، پس می‌توانیم به راحتی این سه گزینه آخر را کنار بگذاریم. اما برای انتخاب جواب از میان دو گزینه‌ی باقی‌مانده، گزینه دوم یعنی "همیشگی" درست است چون وقتی پدیده ای که جزئی است،دائم تکرار شود، این تکرار دائم جبران جزئی بودن را می کند و امکان استنتاج را فراهم می سازد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

همسانی گرامری بخش های جمله ( Parallelism)
بخش 2: همسانی با حروف ربط جفت

@GRE_Borzabadi
حروف ربط جفت عبارتند از:

both . . . and either . . . or whether . . . or

neither . . . nor not only . . . but also



این جفت ها بخش هایی را که از نظ دستوری یکسان هستند ( دو جمله، دو فعل، دو عبارت فعلی و غیره) را ربط میدهند.


مثال:


EITHER we move to New York this year OR we move to Kansas next year. ( دو جمله)

We EITHER move to New York this year OR move to Kansas next year. ( دوعبارت فعلی)

We move EITHER to New York this year OR to Kansas next year. (دو عبارت حرف اضافه ای)




اشتباهات معمول همراه با اصلاح آنها:


INCORRECT: Renee can’t decide whether to go into medicine or be a lawyer.
CORRECT: Renee can’t decide whether to go into medicine or to go into law.
OR
CORRECT: Renee can’t decide whether to become a doctor or to become a lawyer.


INCORRECT: We must not only join the opposition but also we must distance ourselves from the issue.
CORRECT: We must not only join the opposition but also distance ourselves from the issue.

@GRE_Borzabadi



تمرین: چنانچه هر یک از جمله های زیر درست است، مقابل آن کلمه "درست" را بنویسید و در صورتیکه هر یک از جمله های زیر غلط هستند، شکل صحیح آنها را بازنویسی کنید.

1. Both my brother will take care of the dog and I during the holidays.

2. I would like to congratulate both the evening staff and their manager for the time they’ve spent on this special project.

3. He not only brought home his best friend but also the neighbor’s dog.

4. My neighbor uses her van neither to chauffer her teenagers nor shopping.

5. Mr. Uliberri will either ask you or me to join him for lunch.




Answer key:

1. Both my brother and I will take care of the dog during the holidays.

2. CORRECT

3. He brought home not only his best friend but also the neighbor’s dog.

4. My neighbor uses her van neither to chauffer her teenagers nor to shop.

5. Mr. Uliberri will ask either you or me to join him for lunch.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Scientists said that cosmology was the field where the ratio of theory to data was (i)________; there was an abundance of theories, but almost no data. Recently, however. that ratio has flipped. A huge and ever-increasing amount of data has (ii) ________ all theories but one.
Blank (i) Blank (ii)
A. completely unknown D. eliminated
B. nearly infinite E. supported
C. always variable F. clarified

@GRE_Borzabadi
UNKNOWN (ADJ.): نامعلوم – ناشناخته
If something is unknown to you, you have no knowledge of it
Example: Whether the Romans made any significant contributions to the theory or practice of music is unknown because no music of that era has survived.

INFINITE (ADJ.): نامحدود – بسیار زیاد
If you describe something as infinite, you are emphasizing that it is extremely great in amount or degree.
Example: Bella will be a wonderful kindergarten teacher; she gets infinite pleasure from playing with his children.

VARIABLE (ADJ.): متغیر
Something that is variable changes quite often, and there usually seems to be no fixed pattern to these changes.
Example: The rates at this hotel are variable and may change depending upon demand and local events.

ELIMINATE (VB.): حذف کردن – از بین بردن
To eliminate something, especially something you do not want or need, means to remove it completely. (FORMAL)
Example: If you think you may be allergic to a food or drink, eliminate it from your diet.

SUPPORT (VB.): حمایت کردن
If a fact supports a statement or a theory, it helps to show that it is true or correct.
Example: Those at the conference refused to accept the speaker's claim because he did not present enough data to support it.

CLARIFY (V.): توضیح دادن – روشن کردن
To clarify something means to make it easier to understand, usually by explaining it in more detail. (FORMAL)
Example: Because our instructor was so unclear, I had to continually ask him to clarify and repeat what he was saying.

Correct answer: B – D
@GRE_Borzabadi

Scientists said that cosmology was the field where the ratio of theory to data was nearly INFINITE; there was an abundance of theories, but almost no data. Recently, however, that ratio has flipped. A huge and ever-increasing amount of data has ELIMINATED all theories but one.

ترجمه: دانشمندان گفتند که کیهان‌شناسی رشته ای علمی است که در آن نسبت نظریه به داده‌ها تقریبا بیشمار است: انبوهی از نظریه‌ها وجود دارد اما تقریبا هیچ داده‌ای یافت نمی‌شود. با اینحال اخیرا این نسبت برگشته است. حجمی عظیم و روزافزونی از داده‌ها، تمامی نظریه‌ها به جز یکی را حذف کرده است.

توضیح: جمله دوم یعنی (there was an abundance of theories, but almost no data) جواب جای خالی اول را میدهد. وقتی " انبوهی از نظریه‌ها وجود دارد اما تقریبا هیچ داده‌ای یافت نمی‌شود" میتوان گفت که " نسبت نظریه به داده‌ها تقریبا بیشمار است." حال برای جای خالی دوم اگر به بخش (Recently, however, that ratio has flipped) توجه کنیم نتجه میگیریم که حالا باید اطلاعات و داده ها فراوان باشد و تئوری بسیار کم، بنابراین گزینه D را انتخاب می کنیم که این شرایط را فراهم میاورد یعنی الان اطلاعات فراوان است ولی فقط یک تئوری باقی مانده است.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Given children’s active fantasy lives, one might think of truthfulness as (i) ______ virtue in young children, but it turns out that lying is the more (ii) ______ skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying (iii) _______ cognitive development and social skills in a way that honesty simply does not.

Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)
A. an instinctive D. advanced G. undermines
B. an acquired E. practical H. forgoes
C. a conscious F. mundane I. demands

@GRE_Borzabadi


INSTINCTIVE (ADJ.): غریزی
An instinctive feeling idea or action is one that you have or do without thinking or reasoning.
Example: Breathing is instinctive because nobody has to teach you how to do it.

ACQUIRED (V.): اکتسابی
When something is acquired, it is not innate but is learned
Example: Piaget argued that children's ability to speak their mother tongue is an acquired skill.

CONSCIOUS (ADJ.): آگاهانه، هوشیار، آگاه
If you are conscious of something you notice it or realize that it is happening.
Example: Ted was conscious of his faults as a parent, but he still fought for sole custody of his children.

ADVANCED (ADJ.): پیشرفته، مترقی،
An advanced system, method or design is modern and has been developed from an earlier version of the same thing.
Example: Many are afraid that, without more training or advanced technical skills, they’ll lose their job.

PRACTICAL (ADJ.): کاربردی، عملی
Practical ideas and methods are likely to be effective or successful in a real situation.
Example: Although the causes of cancer are being uncovered, we do not yet have any practical and effective way to prevent it.

MUNDANE (ADJ.): وخسته کننده پیش پاافتاده
Something that is mundane is very ordinary and not at all interesting or unusual.
Example: Nowadays people describe their chores very ordinary and mundane.

UNDERMINE (V.): تحلیل بردن،ضعیف کردن
if you undermine something such as a feeling or a system you make it less strong or less secure than it was before often by a gradual process or by repeated efforts.
Example: I want to be successful, I don't want to do something that would undermine the chances of success.

FORGO (V.): رها کردن ، صرف نظر کردن
If you forgo something you decide to do without it although you would like it.
Example: Until my child begins school, I will forgo my career ambitions and be a stay-at-home mom.

DEMAND (V.): خواستار شدن ، مطالبه کردن
If you demand something such as information or action you ask for it in a very forceful way.
Example: Mr. Johnson last night demanded an immediate explanation from the Education secretary and asked for plans.

Correct Answer: B – D – I

@GRE_Borzabadi

Given children’s active fantasy lives, one might think of truthfulness as AN ACQUIRED virtue in young children, but it turns out that lying is the more ADVANCED skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying DEMANDS cognitive development and social skills in a way that honesty simply does not.


ترجمه : با توجه به زندگی فعال خیالبافانه کودکان، ممکن است ما صداقت در کودکان را به عنوان یک فضیلت اکتسابی تلقی کنیم، اما اینطور است که دروغ گفتن، مهارتی پیشرفته تر است. کودکی که میخواهد دروغ بگوید، باید حقیقت را بشناسد، به طور عقلانی درکی از واقعیت های ممکن جایگزین داشته باشد ، و بتواند به طرز قانع کننده ای آن واقعیت جدید را به کس دیگر بقبولاند. از این رو، دروغ گفتن به نوعی رشد شناختی و مهارت های اجتماعی را می طلبد که صداقت خیلی راحت اصلا به چنین مهارت هایی نیاز ندارد.
GRE_Borzabadi

توضیح: جای خالی اول را میتوان با توجه به خود جمله اول پر کرد. اگر زندگی کودکان سراسر خیالبافی (یعنی دروغ) است، پس دروغ ذاتی و صداقت را حتما باید اکتساب کرده باشند. برای جای خالی دوم اگر عباراتی را که آمده (کودکی که میخواهد دروغ بگوید، باید حقیقت را بشناسد، به طور عقلانی درکی از یک واقعیت جایگزین داشته باشد ، و بتواند به طرز قانع کننده ای آن واقعیت جدید را به کس دیگر بقبولاند) بخوانیم متوجه میشویم که از نظر نویسنده، دروغ گویی مهارتی پیشرفته است. حال اطلاعت کافی برای پر کردن جای خالی سوم را هم داریم. به واقع جمله به ما می گوید که حال اگر دروغ گویی مهارتی پیشرفته است پس نیاز با مهارتهای شناختی و مهارتهای اجتماعی دارد.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Noise suppression in phones can play an important role in making cellphone networks more efficient, since when sounds that are ________ to the meaningful signal are transmitted, precious network bandwidth is wasted.
A. Unsuitable
B. detrimental
C. irrelevant
D. confined
E. limited
F. extraneous

@GRE_Borzabadi

UNSUITABLE (ADJ.): نامناسب
Someone or something that is unsuitable for a particular purpose or situation does not have the right qualities for it.
Example: Amy's casual dress was unsuitable for the formal event.

DETRIMENTAL (ADJ.): مضر – زیان آور
Something that is detrimental to something else has a harmful or damaging effect on it.
Example: The government's policy of high interest rates is having a detrimental effect on industry.

IRRELEVANT (ADJ.): نامربوط
If you describe something such as a fact or remark as irrelevant, you mean that it is not connected with what you are discussing or dealing with.
Example: Because Kate feels money is irrelevant in regards to love, she is not bothered by the fact her husband makes less money than she does.

CONFINE (V.): محدود کردن
To confine something to a particular place or group means to prevent it from spreading beyond that place or group.
Example: Studies show that the importance of peer relations is not confined to human beings.

LIMIT (N.): محدودیت
A limit is the greatest amount, extent, or degree of something that is possible.
Example: There is no limit to how much fresh fruit you can eat in a day.

EXTRANEOUS (ADJ.): غیر مرتبط – غیر اصلی
Extraneous things are not relevant or essential to the situation you are involved in or the subject you are talking about.
Example: I can choose to ignore these extraneous thoughts or certainly choose not to act on them.

Correct answer: C – F

@GRE_Borzabadi



Noise suppression in phones can play an important role in making cellphone networks more efficient, since when sounds that are IRRELEVANT/EXTRANEOUS to the meaningful signal are transmitted, precious network bandwidth is wasted.

ترجمه: فرو نشاندن صدای اضافی و مزاحم در تلفن‌ها، می‌تواند نقش مهمی در کارآمدتر کردن شبکه‌های موبایل داشته باشد، زیرا از آنجایی که صداهای فرعی و نامربوط به سیگنال‌های اصلی نیز همراه با آن‌ها مخابره می‌شوند، پهنای باند گران‌قیمت و ارزشمند هدر می‌رود.


توضیح: رابطه بین اجزای جمله، رابطه ای علت و معلولی است:
معلول بخش آغازین است یعنی " فرو نشاندن صدای اضافی و مزاحم در تلفن‌ها، می‌تواند نقش مهمی در کارآمدتر کردن شبکه‌های موبایل داشته باشد."
علت: جای خالی سوال در بخشی از سوال است که علت بخش معلول را بیان میدارد. خوب پهنای باند چه موقع هدر میرود؟ قطعا وقتی که " صداهای فرعی و نامربوط ((IRRELEVANT/EXTRANEOUS به سیگنال‌های اصلی نیز همراه با آن‌ها مخابره می‌شوند.
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

A clever form of diplomacy involves subtly inducing the other party to propose your preference so that your ____ their requests appears as the granting of concession.
A. accession to
B. inattention to
C. subversion of
D. abnegation of
E. repudiation of
F. acquiescence to

@GRE_Borzabadi

ACCESSION (n.): موافقت
Accession is the act of assenting or agreeing
Example: Accession to the Treaty of Rome was effected in 1971.

INATTENTION (n.): بی‌توجهی، قصور
Inattention is the failure to give attention.
Example: He was dismissed for inattention to his duty.

SUBVERSION (n.): براندازی
Subversion is the act of trying to destroy or damage an established system or government.
Example: The subversion of the once-powerful government caused chaos throughout the land.

ABNEGATION (n.): ( چشم پوشی (از حقوق خود) ، ترک علائق (دنیوی
Abnegation is the action of renouncing or rejecting something.
Example: When Mark decided to protest chemical dumping, he used the abnegation of food and water as his method of protest.

REPUDIATION (n.): انکار ، رد
Repudiation is refusing to accept something or someone as true, good, or reasonable.
Example: They were surprised by his sudden repudiation of all his former beliefs.

ACQUIESCENCE (n.): موافقت ، پذیرش
Acquiescence is agreement to do what someone wants, or acceptance of what they do even though you do not agree with it. (FORMAL).
Example: And software engineers' acquiescence to being abused like that ensuresthat it will continue.


Correct answer: A-F

@GRE_Borzabadi



A clever form of diplomacy involves subtly inducing the other party to propose your preference so that your ACCESSION TO/ ACQUIESCENCE TO their requests appears as the granting of concession.

ترجمه: یک نوع زیرکانه سیاستمداری این است که کاری کنیم که طرف دیگر آن چه مد نظر خودمان است را پیشنهاد دهد تا اینکه تن در دادن به درخواست آنها به عنوان نوعی اعطا امتیاز به شمار آید.


توضیح: آنچه نقطه شروع خوب برای یافتن پاسخ است، بخش " یک نوع زیرکانه سیاستمداری" است. طبق متن، ما کاری می کنیم که طرف مقابل خواسته ما را پیشنهاد بدهد. تا همین جا هم ما زرنگی کرده ایم. حالا زرنگی وقتی باز هم بیتشتر می شود که جوری وانمود کنیم که داریم به خواست های آنها تن در میدهیم که می شود همان A/F.

@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The governor might conceivably find a genuine resolution to the budgetary dilemma, but she may be tempted to engage in a deception: a exercise in fiscal prudence.
A. rigorous
B. sparkling
C. specious
D. blatant
E. convincing

@GRE_Borzabadi

RIGOROUS (adj.): شدید ، سخت، دقیق و موشکافانه
A test, system, or procedure that is rigorous is very thorough and strict.
Example: The work failed to meet their rigorous standards.

SPARKLING (adj.): درخشنده، بسیار عالی
If a company is described as having sparkling figures or sparkling results, it has performed very well and made a lot of money.
Example: The big stores have had another year of sparkling results.

SPECIOUS (adj.): ظاهرا منطقى ودرست ولى واقعا عکس آن،غلط، گمراه کننده
Something that is specious seems to exist or be true, but is not real or true. [Formal]
Example: He justified his actions with specious reasoning.

BLATANT (adj.): بی شرمانه، وقیحانه
You use blatant to describe something bad that is done in an open or very obvious way.
Example: He showed a blatant disregard for the safety of other drivers.

CONVINCING (adj.): قانع کننده، متقاعد کننده
If you describe someone or something as convincing, you mean that they make you believe that a particular thing is true, correct, or genuine.
Example: There is no convincing evidence to support his theory.


Correct answer: C

@GRE_Borzabadi

The governor might conceivably find a genuine resolution to the budgetary dilemma, but she may be tempted to engage in a deception: a specious exercise in fiscal prudence.

ترجمه : فرماندار ممکن است راه حلی واقعی برای معضلات بودجه ای پیدا کند، اما ممکن است وسوسه شود تا وارد حقه بازی شود: عملی غلط در عقلانیت مالی.

توضیح: کلید این سوال کلمه deception است. در مقابل این این کلمه آن توضیحی داریم که بعد از دو نقطه آمده است، پس باید کلمه ای را انتخاب کنیم که توضیح این وضعیت را بدهد و نزدیک ترین کلمه برای توصیف این وضع، کلمه speciousاست. 
@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

There is............. in the director's most recent film that keeps the melodramatic possibilities latent in its script safely at bay.
A. a mawkishness
B. a predictability
C. an austerity
D. an ostentatiousness
E. an emotiveness

@GRE_Borzabadi


MAWKISHNESS (N): احساسی بودن, احساسات محوری زیاد زیادی
If someone or something has mawkishness, they show too much emotion in a way that is sentimental and silly.
Example: In earlier chapters of the book, her descriptions were of great emotional power but carried no mawkishness.

PREDICTABILITY (N): پیش بینی پذیری ، قابل پیش بینی بودن
If you describe something as having predictability, you mean it is obvious in advance that it will happen.
Example: Such behavioural patterns enable individuals to organize their lives with some degree of predictability and certainty about the likely behaviour of other family members.

AUSTERITY (N): جدیت
If you refer to austerity in someone's behaviour, you mean that person shows a lots of seriousness.
Example: His pride and austerity made him unpopular among his friends, forcing him to shy away from them.

OSTENTATIOUSNESS (N): تظاهر ، خودنمایی
You can describe an action or behaviour as showing ostentatiousness when it is done in an exaggerated way to attract people’s attention.
Example: The ostentatiousness she carried with her by wearing expensive jewellery really made a good target for robbers.

EMOTIVENESS (N): ارزش عاطفی ، بار احساسی
Emotiveness of a situation or issue is its likelihood to make people feel strong emotions.
Example: To my mind this rational, intellectual debate hasn't happened yet due primarily to the emotiveness of the issue.


Correct Answer: C

@GRE_Borzabadi


There is an AUSTERITY in the director's most recent film that keeps the melodramatic possibilities latent in its script safely at bay.

ترجمه: در فیلم اخیر این فیلمساز جدیتی وجود دارد که احتمالات ملودرام ( احساسات اغراغ شده) پنهان در فیلنامه را از بروز دور نگاه می دارد.


توضیح: متن میگوید که احتمالات ملودراماتیک که در فیلمنامه مستتر هستند دور نگه داشته می شوند. آنچه در تقابل با احسات است، همان گزینه "جدیت" است. وقتی فیلمی جدی شد، جایی برای ابراز احساسات شدید وجود ندارد.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

The museum's compelling new architectural exhibition looks at eleven projects around the world that have had major (i) ______ impacts despite modest budgets. It is part of (ii) ______ in the museum's architecture and design department, which in the past has championed architecture's artistic value over its real-world consequences.

Blank (i)
A. social
B. aesthetic
C. critical

Blank (ii)
D. an emphasis on theory
E. a shift in philosophy
F. a rejection of pragmatism

@GRE_Borzabadi


Social (ADJ.): اجتماعی
Social means relating to society or to the way society is organized.
Example: There was a research about housing and social policy, mostly concerned with public issues.

AESTHETIC (ADJ.): وابسته به زیبایی، زیبایی شناختی
Aesthetic is used to talk about beauty or art and people's appreciation of beautiful things.
Example: My husband’s painting, on the other hand, was awful and did not have any aesthetic properties.

CRITICAL (ADJ.): بحرانی ، وخیم
A critical time, factor, or situation is extremely serious and important
Example: The incident happened at a critical point in the campaign which was an important time for campaigners.

EMPHASIS (N.): تاکید
Emphasis is special or extra important that is given to an activity or to a part or aspect of something.
Example: There was an emphasis on the importance of full cost recovery, and it must be considered as an important activity.

SHIFT (N.): تغییر، انتقال، تعویض
A shift in something such a policy or theory is a change in its focus.
Example: We have recently witness a positive shift in the government's policy concerning ethnic groups.

REJECTION (N.): رد ، عدم پذیرش
Rejection of something such as a proposal or an offer is not accepting it or not agreeing to it.
Example: After years of rejection, he finally found a publisher for his book.

PRAGMATISM (N.): مصلحت گرایی
Pragmatism means thinking of or dealing with problems in a practical way rather than by using theory or abstract principles.
Example: City problem-solving has to be based on pragmatism rather than ideology.


Correct Answer: A – E


@GRE_Borzabadi


The museum's compelling new architectural exhibition looks at eleven projects around the world that have had major SOCIAL impacts despite modest budgets. It is part of A SHIFT IN PHILOSOPHY in the museum's architecture and design department, which in the past has championed architecture's artistic value over its real-world consequences.


ترجمه: مجموعه جدید و جالب موزه در مورد معماری نگاهی دارد بر یازده پروژه از سراسر دنیا، که علی رغم بودجه ی اندک شان، تاثیر اجتماعی عمده ای داشته اند. این مجموعه ، بخشی از تغییر در فلسفه ی بخش معماری و طراحی موزه است که در گذشته از ارزش زیبای شناختی معماری بیشتر از تاثیرات آن در عالم واقعی پشتیبانی می کرده است.


توضیح : برای جای خالی اول باید به کلمه ی despite رجوع کرد. گفته شده است که این پروژه ها برخلاف بودجه ی اندک شان، تاثیرعمده ای داشته اند. این تاثیر نمیتواند منفی باشد پس "وخیم " نمی شود. گزینه "زیبای شناختی" هم نمیشود زیرا که در بخش بعد میگوید قبلا بر تاثیر زیبایی شناختی تاکید داشته وجود داشته است. بنابراین بهترین گزینه همان " اجتماعی" است.
برای جای خالی دوم، به معنای جمله دقت می کنیم که تاکید گذشته را با تاکید حال حاضر مقایسه میکند. در گذشته تاکید بر بخش زیبایی شناختی بوده است ولی الان تاکید بر تاثیرات مربوطه در عالم واقعی می باشد. بنابرین " تغییری در فلسفه دید" بوجود آمده است.
GRE_Borzabadi

Many fairy tales are complex narratives of wish fulfilment They teach the reader that a struggle against severe difficulties in life is (i).................., that it is an intrinsic part of human existence, and that if one does not (ii).............., but steadfastly meets unexpected and often unjust hardships, one masters all obstacles and at the end (iii),................ .

Blank (i)
A. atypical
B. unavoidable
C. insurmountable

Blank (ii)
D. preserve
E. improvise
F. shy away

Blank (ii)
G. elicits adversities
H. emerges victoriously
I. evades achievements


@GRE_Borzabadi

ATYPICAL (ADJ): نامعمول ، غیر عادی
Someone or something that is atypical is not typical of its kind.
Example: The economy of the province was atypical because it was particularly smaller than the main cities.

UNAVOIDABLE (ADJ): اجتناب ناپذیر
If something is unavoidable, it cannot be avoided or prevented.
Example: The recession has resulted in an unavoidable increase in unemployment rate.

INSURMOUNTABLE (ADJ): غیر قابل حل، رفع نشدنی
A problem that is insurmountable is so great that it cannot be dealt with successfully.
Example: Philadelphia's financial crisis seems much like an insurmountable problem.

PRESERVE (V): حفظ کردن، نگه داشتن
If you preserve a situation or condition, you make sure that it remains as it is, and does not change or end.
Example: We will do everything to preserve peace.

IMPROVISE (V): بداهه پردازی کردن, سر هم کردم
If you improvise, you make or do something using whatever you have or without having planned it in advance.
Example: I forgot to bring my notes, so I had to improvise.

SHY AWAY (V): سرباز زدن، از پای نشستن
If you shy away from doing something, you avoid doing it, often because you are afraid or not confident enough.
Example: They criticized the leadership, but shied away from a direct challenge.

ELICIT (V): برانگیزاندن، به واکنش واداشتن بیرون کشیدن،
If you elicit a response or a reaction, you do or say something which makes other people respond or react.
Example: Mr Norris said he was hopeful that his request would elicit a positive response.

ADVERSITY (N): دشواری، مشقت
Adversity is a very difficult or unfavourable situation.
Example: They have suffered more than their fair share of adversity and managed to overcome it every time.

EMERGE (V): بیرون آمدن ، خارج شدن
If you emerge from a difficult or bad experience, you come to the end of it.
Example: She emerged from divorce a stronger person.

VICTORIOUSLY (ADV): فاتحانه ، پیروزمندانه
If you do or finish something such as a war, struggle, or competition victoriously, you have won it.
Example: Two days later the German army entered Paris victoriously.
GRE_Borzabadi

EVADE (V): فاصله گرفتن، دور شدن
If something such as success, glory, or love evades you, you do not manage to have it. (LITERARY)
Example: Long after his mother’s death, happiness, which had been so elusive in Henry's life, still evaded him.

Correct Answers: B, F, H

@GRE_Borzabadi


Many fairy tales are complex narratives of wish fulfilment They teach the reader that a struggle against severe difficulties in life is UNAVOIDABLE that it is an intrinsic part of human existence, and that if one does not SHY AWAY but steadfastly meets unexpected and often unjust hardships, one masters all obstacles and at the end EMERGE VICTORIOUSLY.


ترجمه:
بسیاری از افسانه ها روایاتی پیچیده از دستیابی به آرزوها هستند. آن ها به خواننده می آموزند که نبرد در برابر دشواری های بزرگ اجتناب ناپذیر است, حقیقتی نهفته در ذات و وجود انسان است و چنانچه فرد در برابر آن ها از پای ننشیند و ثابت قدم به مقابله با شداید ناخوانده و گاه ناعادلانه برخیزد، سختی های راه را می آموزد و در پایان فاتحانه سر بر می آورد.


توضیحات: قسمت it is an intrinsic part of human existence نشان میدهد که برای جای خالی اول UNAVOIDABLE درست است. قسمت but steadfastly meets unexpected and often unjust hardships, نسان میدهد که کلمه but را دارد نشان میدهد که SHY AWAY درست است. قسمت one masters all obstacles هم منطقی مارا به EMERGE VICTORIOUSLY می رساند. بدیهی است که هگر انسان مبارزه کند در نهایت پیروز است.


@GRE_Borzabadi
GRE_Borzabadi

Select TWO answer choices.

If giant x-ray flares churn circumstellar disks enough to keep newborn planets, such as Earth once was, from spiraling into their suns, it would be an ironic twist on our conception of
x-ray flares as…………. .
A. dangerous
B. predictable
C. ancient
D. ephemeral
E. perilous
F. foreseeable

GIANT (ADJ): عظیم
Something that is described as giant is much larger or more important than most others of its kind.
Example: The monster was giant in a way that no one could fight with it.

RAY (N): اشعه
Rays of light are narrow beams of light.
Example: Some of the sun rays such as x-ray are harmful.

FLARE (N): شعله
A flare is a a sudden brief burst of bright flame or light.
Example: The flare of the match lit up his face.

CHURN (V): چیزی را تکان دادن و هم زدن
If something churns water, mud, or dust, it moves about violently.
Example: The ocean was churning, so no one could travel through water.

CIRCUMSTELLAR (N): دور ستاره ای
Something circumstellar surrounds or occurs in the vicinity of a star
Example: a star circumstellar dust is composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star

NEWBORN (ADJ): تازه متولد یا پدیدار گشته
Writers sometimes use newborn to describe things that have just come into existence.
Example: Microbiology was a newborn science.

SPIRAL (V): به طور مارپیچ حرکت کردن
If something spirals or is spiraled somewhere, it grows or moves in a spiral curve.
Example: The damaged plane spiraled to the ground so fast that the passengers felt sick.

IRONIC (ADJ): کنایه آمیز
When you make an ironic remark, you say something that you do not mean, as a joke.
Example: Your car was stolen at the police station! How ironic!

TWIST (N): تحول یا حادثه غیر مترقبه
A twist in something is an unexpected and significant development.
Example: The movie has a number of interesting twists in the plot, and an ending guaranteed to surprise everyone.

CONCEPTION (N): دیدگاه و عقیده
A conception of something is an idea that you have of it in your mind.
Example: My conception of a garden was based on gardens I had visited in England.

DANGEROUS (ADJ): خطرناک
If something is dangerous, it is able or likely to hurt or harm you.
Example: It is dangerous to walk on the rope, you may fall.

PREDICTABLE (ADJ):قابل پیش بینی
If you say that an event is predictable, you mean that it is obvious in advance that it will happen.
Example: The exchange of criticism was a predictable reaction, given the bitter hostility between the two countries.

ANCIENT (ADJ): باستانی
Ancient means belonging to the distant past, especially to the period in history before the end of the Roman Empire.
Example: Visiting ancient places helped students to get familiar with the history of their countries.

EPHEMERAL (ADJ): موقت
If you describe something as ephemeral, you mean that it lasts only for a very short time.
Example: Fashion is by nature ephemeral and does not last for a long time.

PERILOUS (ADJ): خطرناک
Something that is perilous is very dangerous.
Example: The journey across the mountains was perilous and everyone was scared.

FORSEEABLE (ADJ): قابل پیش بینی
If a future event is foreseeable, you know that it will happen or that it can happen, because it is a natural or obvious consequence of something else that you know
Example: The war between two villages was foreseeable due to their old hostility.

Correct answer: A, E
@GRE_Borzabadi


If giant x-ray flares churn circumstellar disks enough to keep newborn planets, such as Earth
once was, from spiraling into their suns, it would be an ironic twist on our conception of
x-ray flares as DANGEROUS/ PERILOUS .

ترجمه: اگرشعله های های بزرگ اشعه ی ایکس، حلقه های دور ستاره ای را به اندازه ی کافی تکان دهند تا مانع مارپیچ وار غوطه خوردن سیارت تازه ایجاد شده به درون ستارگانشان شوند ، همانطور که مانع چنین اتفاقی برای زمین شدند، آنگاه این امر تغییری غیرمنتظره در برداشت ما از شعله های اشعه ایکس خواهد شد که آنها را خطرناک می پنداریم.